This report documents the results of an evaluation of the surface-water quantity, surface-water quality, and rainfall data-collection programs in Hawaii. Fourteen specific issues and related goals were identified for the surface-water quantity program and a geographic information systems (GIS) data base was developed summarizing information for all surface-water stream gages that have been operated in Hawaii by the U.S. Geological Survey. Changes in status, which for some gages includes discontinuing operation, need to be considered at 42 sites where data are currently collected.
The current surface-water quantity data base was determined to be adequate to address only two of the 14 specific issues and related goals. Alternatives were identified to address the areas where future issues and goals could not be adequately addressed. Options include new and expanded data collection, use of regional regression analyses, hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, and analysis and publication of existing data. A total of 47 streams were identified where additional stream-gaging stations are needed.
Evaluation of the surface-water quality program was limited to a description of the U.S. Geological Survey's historical and existing programs and available analyses of data. Limitations of the program are described which primarily included lack of data regarding suspended sediment, land-use effects, quality of stream discharge to oceans, background water quality and nonpoint sources of contamination.
Evaluation of the rainfall data program indicated that identified future goals could be discussed as either regional, systems related, current needs, forecasting, water quality, or trend analysis related.
To address these goals, data from about 2,000 rain gages, 528 of which are active, are available. Data were found to only partially meet identified goals. Alternatives discussed to address the limitations include the need for more recording gages, primarily in areas of high rainfall. Another area of concern was the potential that many plantations will close and the effect these closings would have on continued operation of the important long-term gages they operate.
Evaluation of data-collection programs in Hawaii needs to be an ongoing process. Equally important, data being collected need to be summarized and made available through data bases and published reports.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Evaluation of the Surface-Water Quantity, Surface-Water Quality, and Rainfall Data-Collection Programs in Hawaii, 1994