This report summarizes aquatic biological studies relevant to water-quality assessment that have been done in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages from 1891 to 1996. The objective of the summary was to compile sources of biological data for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The studies are divided into four categories: (1) populations and community structure of aquatic biota, (2) health of aquatic biota, (3) chemical concentrations in tissues of aquatic biota, and (4) toxicity tests by use of aquatic biota. Studies are further categorized by subbasin, spatial scale (regional or local), types of biota, and, if applicable, effect or contaminant investigated. For the purposes of this report, the study area is divided into five subbasins. The subbasins, from north to south, are (1) the Ford/Escanaba Subbasin in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and in Wisconsin, (2) the Menominee/ Oconto/Peshtigo Subbasin, (3) the Fox/Wolf Subbasin, (4) the Sheboygan/Manitowoc/Twin Subbasin, and (5) the Milwaukee Subbasin.
Most biological studies related to waterquality conditions in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages have focused on populations and community structure of aquatic biota. Chemical concentrations in tissues of aquatic biota have been the next most common area of research. Our review suggests a paucity of data related to the health of all types of aquatic biota, especially amphibians, invertebrates, and reptiles; toxicity studies also were relatively uncommon. Overall, organisms primarily studied have been fish and invertebrates, although birds are most frequently examined in studies of organism health. The Fox/ Wolf Subbasin has been the focus of many more studies than the other subbasins, most likely because of the greater extent and severity of known water-quality problems in the Lower Fox River/Green Bay area over the past several decades and because it is the largest subbasin. Studies in the other subbasins are needed to adequately assess the water quality of these areas.
Additional publication details
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Title||Summary of biological investigations relating to water quality in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages, Wisconsin and Michigan|
|Series title||Water-Resources Investigations Report|
|Publisher||U.S. Geological Survey|
|Contributing office(s)||Wisconsin Water Science Center|
|Description||vi, 89 p.|
|Online Only (Y/N)||N|
|Additional Online Files (Y/N)||N|