Water resources of the Batavia Kill basin at Windham, Greene County, New York

Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4036
Prepared in cooperation with the New York City Department of Environmental Protection



The water resources of a 27.6-square-mile section of the Batavia Kill Basin near the village of Windham, N.Y., which has undergone substantial development, were evaluated. The evaluation entailed (1) estimation of the magnitude and distribution of several hydrologic components, including recharge, (2) measurement of discharge and chemical quality of the Batavia Kill and selected tributaries, (3) analysis of ground-water flow and chemistry, and (4) a conceptualization of the ground-water flow system.

The region consists of deeply dissected, relatively flat-lying, clastic sedimentary sequences variably overlain by as much as 120 feet of glacial deposits. The types of bedrock fractures and their distribution in the Batavia Kill valley are consistent with valley stress-relief characteristics. Till predominates in the uplands, and stratified drift typically dominates within the valley of the Batavia Kill and the lower section of its largest tributary valley (Mitchell Hollow).

Fractured bedrock is the most commonly used water source within the study area. The areas of highest yielding bedrock generally are with valleys, where the shallow fractures are saturated. Stratified-drift aquifers are also limited to the largest valleys; the greatest saturated thicknesses are in the Batavia Kill valley at Windham. A conceptual model of ground-water flow within the study areas suggests that the zones of most active flow are shallow fractured bedrock in upland areas and the shallow stratified drift in the largest valleys.

The hydrogeologic system has been altered by development; major effects include (1) chemical alteration of natural ground-water and surface-water quality by point- and nonpoint-source contaminants, (2) hydraulic interconnection of other-wise isolated bedrock fractures by wellbores, and (3) drawdowns in wells within the Batavia Kill valley by pumping from the bedrock aquifer. Water resource development of the most promising unconsolidated aquifer beneath Windham may be precluded by the potential for contamination by leachate from an abandoned landfill, road-salt stockpiles, and domestic septic systems in the area.

Suggested Citation

Heisig, Paul M., 1999, Water resources of the Batavia Kill basin at Windham, Greene County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 1998–4036, 96 p., https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/wri984036.

Table of Contents

  • Abstract 
  • Introduction
  • Water Resources
  • Ground Water
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • References Cited
  • Glossary
  • Appendix A: Data on wells and test holes in the Batavia Kill study area, Greene County, N.Y
  • Appendix B: Chemical analyses of ground water from the Batavia Kill study area, Greene County, N.Y. 1991-92, by water type
  • Appendix C: Chemical analyses of ground-water samples that were affected by human activities, Batavia Kill study area, Greene County, N.Y. 1991-92
  • Plate 1
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Water resources of the Batavia Kill basin at Windham, Greene County, New York
Series title Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number 98-4036
DOI 10.3133/wri984036
Year Published 1999
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) New York Water Science Center
Description Report: vii, 96 p.; Plate: 11.0 x 8.5 inches
Country United States
State New York
County Greene County
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) Y
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details