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Vulnerability of ground water in the Tokio and Warwick aquifers to surface contamination, Fort Totten Indian Reservation, North Dakota

Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4152

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Abstract

The vulnerability of ground water in the Tokio and Warwick aquifers to surface contamination was evaluated using existing hydrologic, climatic, geologic, topographic, and land-use/land-cover data and geographic information system procedures. The aquifers underlie parts of the Fort Totten Indian Reservation in northeastern North Dakota. The vulnerability was evaluated using vertical hydraulic leakance, depth to water, hydraulic conductivity, land use/land cover, land-surface slope, hydrologic sinks, and drainage basin areas. Data were discretized using a land-surface altitude grid divided into 50-foot-square cells. Vertical hydraulic leakance was determined by combining data from ring-permeameter and slug tests, land-use/land-cover data were obtained from data sets, and land-surface slope and hydrologic sinks were calculated from land-surface altitude data.

The vulnerability of ground water in the Tokio and Warwick aquifers to surface contamination is high in terms of land use/land cover and land-surface slope. The land surface of the Warwick aquifer also has numerous hydrologic sinks that result in areas of increased vulnerability of ground water to surface contamination.

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Vulnerability of ground water in the Tokio and Warwick aquifers to surface contamination, Fort Totten Indian Reservation, North Dakota
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number:
98-4152
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1999
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey
Contributing office(s):
North Dakota Water Science Center, Dakota Water Science Center
Description:
iii, 30 p.