Quantifying the hydraulic interaction of aquifers and streams is important in the analysis of stream base fow, flood-wave effects, and contaminant transport between surface- and ground-water systems. This report describes the use of two computer programs, STLK1 and STWT1, to analyze the hydraulic interaction of streams with confined, leaky, and water-table aquifers during periods of stream-stage fuctuations and uniform, areal recharge. The computer programs are based on analytical solutions to the ground-water-flow equation in stream-aquifer settings and calculate ground-water levels, seepage rates across the stream-aquifer boundary, and bank storage that result from arbitrarily varying stream stage or recharge. Analysis of idealized, hypothetical stream-aquifer systems is used to show how aquifer type, aquifer boundaries, and aquifer and streambank hydraulic properties affect aquifer response to stresses. Published data from alluvial and stratifed-drift aquifers in Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Iowa are used to demonstrate application of the programs to field settings. Analytical models of these three stream-aquifer systems are developed on the basis of available hydrogeologic information. Stream-stage fluctuations and recharge are applied to the systems as hydraulic stresses. The models are calibrated by matching ground-water levels calculated with computer program STLK1 or STWT1 to measured ground-water levels.
The analytical models are used to estimate hydraulic properties of the aquifer, aquitard, and streambank; to evaluate hydrologic conditions in the aquifer; and to estimate seepage rates and bank-storage volumes resulting from flood waves and recharge. Analysis of field examples demonstrates the accuracy and limitations of the analytical solutions and programs when applied to actual ground-water systems and the potential uses of the analytical methods as alternatives to numerical modeling for quantifying stream-aquifer interactions.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Use of computer programs STLK1 and STWT1 for analysis of stream-aquifer hydraulic interaction
Water-Resources Investigations Report
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ;