Water requirements of the styrene, butadiene and synthetic-rubber industries
Water Supply Paper 1330-F
- Charles N. Durfor
About 710 million gallons of makeup water is withdrawn daily by the styrene, butadiene, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), and specialty-rubber industries; 88 percent of this water is used only for once-through cooling. About 429 million gallons of water daily (mgd) is withdrawn by the butadiene industry; 158 ragd is withdrawn by the styrene industry; 94 mgd is used to make special-purpose synthetic rubber; and 29 mgd is used in the direct manufacture of SBR.
The amount of makeup water withdrawn to produce SBR ranges from 11,400 to 418,000 gallons per long ton of finished rubber. The amount of makeup water withdrawn depends upon the type of rubber, the processes used to make SBR and its intermediates (styrene and butadiene), and the availability of water at the styrene, butadiene, and SBR plants. The amount of makeup water used to make styrene ranged from 2.19 to 123 gallons per pound; to make butadiene, ranged from 5.38 to 22.0 gallons per pound; and in the direct manufacture of SBR, ranged from 0.883 to 10.2 gallons per pound of finished rubber. The amount of makeup water withdrawn for use in the manufacture of special-purpose synthetic rubber ranged from 8.45 to 104 gallons per pound.
About 64 percent of the makeup water was obtained from salty water sources. These waters, which were used only in once-through cooling, contained as much as 35,000 ppm of dissolved solids. About 26 percent of the makeup water was obtained from fresh-water streams and lakes, and most of the other makeup waters were obtained from ground water. Less than 1 percent of the makeup water was obtained from reprocessed municipal sewage. Most makeup water from fresh-water streams, lakes, and wells contained less than 1,000 ppm of dissolved solids, and most makeup water used in the manufacture of SBR contained less than 500 ppm of dissolved solids. The maximum hardness of the untreated fresh makeup waters; used in the manufacture of SBR was less than 500 ppm.
About 97 percent of the makeup water withdrawn was discharged to surface waters; the warmed salty waters were returned to their source. The remaining 3 percent, or about 23.6 mgd, of makeup water was used consumptively. The styrene industry consumptively used about 2.0 percent of its intake; the butadiene industry, about 4.5 percent; the specialty-rubber industry, about 9.1 percent; and the SBR industry, about 11 percent. The water shipped in the synthetic-rubber products increased the consumptive use of water by these industries.
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- USGS Numbered Series
- Water requirements of the styrene, butadiene and synthetic-rubber industries
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- Water Supply Paper
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- U.S. Government Printing Office
- v, 65 p.
- Larger Work Title:
- Water requirements of selected industries
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