Induced recharge of an artesian glacial-drift aquifer at Kalamazoo, Michigan
Water Supply Paper 1594-D
Prepared in cooperation with the city of Kalamazoo and the Michigan Geological Survey
- J.E. Reed , Morris Deutsch , and S.W. Wiitala
As part of a program for managing its ground-water supply, the city of Kalamazoo has constructed induced-recharge facilities at the sites of several of its well fields. To determine the benefits of induced recharge in a water-management program, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city, conducted a series of field experiments at a city well field (Station 9). The 12 production wells at the test site penetrate about 160 feet of glacial drift, which can be separated into three general units a lower aquifer, an intervening confining layer, and an upper aquifer. Although the upper aquifer is not tapped by any of the municipal supply wells, it serves as a storage and transmission medium for water from the West Fork Portage Creek.
The testing program consisted of four aquifer and three recharge tests. The aquifer tests show that the transmissibility of the upper and lower aquifers ranges from 50,000 to 100,000 gallons per day per foot and indicate that nearly 200 gpm (gallons per minute) leaks through the intervening aquiclude under nonpumping conditions. The object of the three recharge tests (tests 5, 6, and 7) was to observe the effects of induced recharge by varying conditions in the recharge channel. During the three recharge tests, 7 wells were pumped at a total rate averaging about 2,500 gpm. During test 5, inflow to the channel was shut off, and the water level in the channel was allowed to decline. Drawdowns measured during this test were used as a standard for comparison with drawdowns in tests 6 and 7. During test 6, the head in the recharge channel was maintained as constant as possible, and the inflow to the channel was measured. The rate of induced recharge, as indicated by the measured inflow, averaged about 300 gpm. Between tests 6 and 7, the area of the channel was increased from 27,000 to 143,000 square feet. During test 7, the head in the channel was again maintained as constant as possible, but the inflow to the larger channel increased to about 600 gpm.
The principal effect of induced recharge on the two aquifers was to reduce the amount and rate of drawdown. Therefore, where water levels and artesian pressures can be maintained at high stages, the result is lower pumping costs and increased rates of withdrawal during periods of peak demand.
Additional publication details
- Publication type:
- Publication Subtype:
- USGS Numbered Series
- Induced recharge of an artesian glacial-drift aquifer at Kalamazoo, Michigan
- Series title:
- Water Supply Paper
- Series number:
- Year Published:
- U.S. Government Printing Office
- Publisher location:
- Washington, D.C.
- Contributing office(s):
- Michigan Water Science Center
- Document: v, 62 p.; 2 Plates: 16.00 x 14.83 inches and 16.00 x 14.86 inches
- United States