The Glendo area of Platte and Carbon Counties, Wyo., about 250 square miles in extent, is in the Great Plains physiographic province. It is bordered on the west by the Laramie Range and on the east by the Hartville uplift. The North Platte River and Horseshoe and Middle Bear Creeks are the principal streams that drain the area. Gentle to steep hills, which lie between 4,450 and 6,360 feet above sea level, characterize the topography. Approximately 7,600 acres of land is cultivated in the Horseshoe Creek valley and 1,000 or more acres in the Cassa Flats of the North Platte River and Middle Bear Creek valleys. The average annual precipitation of 13.15 inches and the streamflow diverted for irrigation from Horseshoe Creek and the North Platte River are usually inadequate to sustain crops during the entire growing season.
Sedimentary rocks, which underlie about 99 percent of the Glendo area, range in age from Cambrian(?) to Recent and in thickness from about 3,000 to 4,700 feet. Beds of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age dip steeply away from the Laramie Range and the Hartville uplift to form a large syncline, which is interrupted by the Elkhorn anticline in the central part of the area. Beds of Tertiary and Quaternary age that were deposited over the older structural features and later were partly removed by erosion have dips of less than 6 ? . The 'Converse sand' of local usage at the top of the Hartville Formation of Mississippian(7), Pennsylvanian, and Permian age, the White River Formation of Oligocene age, and the flood-plain deposits of Recent .age are the most important aquifers in the Glendo area.
The Hartville Formation consists predominantly of hard limestone and dolomite and of lesser amounts of sandstone and shale ; its thickness ranges from 850 to 1,050 feet throughout most of the area. The 'Converse sand' is an artesian aquifer consisting of fine- to medium-grained porous sandstone having an average thickness of about 80 feet.
Recharge to the Hartville Formation is mainly from seepage of surface water from Glendo Reservoir and Spring Creek; ground water is discharged from the formation to the overlying White River Formation and the alluvium in the North Platte River valley near Cassa and to four wells in the Horseshoe Creek valley. Flowing wells yielding from a few gallons per minute to 175 gpm (gallons per minute) or more from the 'Converse sand' can probably be located in an area from ? mile to 1? miles wide and about 4? miles long in the lower Horseshoe Creek valley. The depth to the 'Converse sand' in this area depends upon the topographic relief and distance from the outcrop and ranges from 250 to about 1,000 feet. The discharge induced by pumping a well in the aquifer in the 'Converse sand' would probably amount to about 2 gpm per foot of drawdown. Values of 2,000, 2,100, and 10,300 gpd (gallons per day) per ft for the coefficient of transmissibility of the 'Converse sand' were obtained from aquifer tests at three wells.
The chemical analyses of samples from the Hartville Formation ('Converse. sand' included) indicate that the water in the formation is of fairly good quality and adequate for domestic, stock, and irrigation uses, although the fluoride content is low and the water is hard.
The White River Formation is composed of as much as 575 feet of fractured siltstone and claystone, and the flood-plain deposits include up to 65 feet of silt, sand, and gravel. Precipitation is the main type of recharge to the rocks of Tertiary age. Recharge to the alluvium in the valleys of Horseshoe Creek and the North Platte River occurs mainly by seepage of ground water from. underlying beds, by infiltration of irrigation water, and by infiltration of streamflow as bank storage. Ground water is discharged naturally from the area
by seepage to streams, by underflow, and by evapotranspiration and artificially by wells. In 1961, the total discharge from 38 wells in the White River and Arikaree Formations and 2