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An outbreak of type E botulism among common loons (Gavia immer) in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

Journal of Wildlife Diseases

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Abstract

An epizootic of type E botulism (Clostridium botulinum) occurred among common loons (Gavia immer) along the Lake Michigan shore of Michigan's Upper Peninsula (USA) during October and November 1983. An estimated 592 dead loons washed ashore along the Garden Peninsula. Type E botulinal toxin was demonstrated in blood samples and stomach contents of dead loons, and in samples of three species of dead fish found on the Lake Michigan shore. We suspect that loons acquired botulism by ingesting sick or dead fish containing type E toxin.

Geospatial Extents

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
An outbreak of type E botulism among common loons (Gavia immer) in Michigan's Upper Peninsula
Series title:
Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Volume
24
Issue:
3
Year Published:
1988
Language:
English
Contributing office(s):
National Wildlife Health Center
Description:
p. 471-476
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
First page:
471
Last page:
476
Number of Pages:
6
Country:
USA
State:
MI
Other Geospatial:
Garden Peninsula of Michigan's Upper Peninsula
Online Only (Y/N):
N
Additional Online Files(Y/N):
N