Accurate estimates of drug concentrations in hatchery effluent are critical to assess the environmental risk of hatchery drug discharge resulting from disease treatment. This study validated two dilution simple n models to estimate chloramine-T environmental introduction concentrations by comparing measured and predicted chloramine-T concentrations using the US Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center aquaculture facility effluent as an example. The hydraulic characteristics of our treated raceway and effluent and the accuracy of our water flow rate measurements were confirmed with the marker dye rhodamine WT. We also used the rhodamine WT data to develop dilution models that would (1) estimate the chloramine-T concentration at a given time and location in the effluent system and (2) estimate the average chloramine-T concentration at a given location over the entire discharge period. To test our models, we predicted the chloramine-T concentration at two sample points based on effluent flow and the maintenance of chloramine-T at 20 mg/l for 60 min in the same raceway used with rhodamine WT. The effluent sample points selected (sample points A and B) represented 47 and 100% of the total effluent flow, respectively. Sample point B is-analogous to the discharge of a hatchery that does not have a detention lagoon, i.e. The sample site was downstream of the last dilution water addition following treatment. We then applied four chloramine-T flow-through treatments at 20mg/l for 60 min and measured the chloramine-T concentration in water samples collected every 15 min for about 180 min from the treated raceway and sample points A and B during and after application. The predicted chloramine-T concentration at each sampling interval was similar to the measured chloramine-T concentration at sample points A and B and was generally bounded by the measured 90% confidence intervals. The predicted aver,age chloramine-T concentrations at sample points A or B (2.8 and 1.3 mg/l, respectively) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the average measured chloramine-T concentrations (2.7 and 1.3 mg/l, respectively). The close agreement between our predicted and measured chloramine-T concentrations indicate either of the dilution models could be used to adequately predict the chloramine-T environmental introduction concentration in Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center effluent. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Additional publication details
Validation of two dilution models to predict chloramine-T concentrations in aquaculture facility effluent