Mars Polar Science is a subfield of Mars science that encompasses all studies of the cryosphere of Mars and its interaction with the Martian environment. Every 4 yr, the community of scientists dedicated to this subfield meets to discuss new findings and debate open issues in the International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration (ICMPSE). This paper summarizes the proceedings of the seventh ICMPSE and the progress made since the sixth edition. We highlight the most important advances and present the most salient open questions in the field today, as discussed and agreed upon by the participants of the conference. We also feature agreed-upon suggestions for future methods, measurements, instruments, and missions that would be essential to answering the main open questions presented. This work is thus an overview of the current status of Mars Polar Science and is intended to serve as a road map for the direction of the field during the next 4 yr and beyond, helping to shape its contribution within the larger context of planetary science and exploration.