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California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Gaviota, California

Released April 20, 2018 16:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1023

Samuel Y. Johnson, Peter Dartnell, Guy R. Cochrane, Stephen R. Hartwell, Nadine E. Golden, Rikk G. Kvitek, Clifton W. Davenport

Samuel Y. Johnson, Susan A. Cochran, editor(s)

Introduction

In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.

The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The offshore part of the map area lies south of the steep south flank of the Santa Ynez Mountains. The crest of the range, which has a maximum elevation of about 760 m in the map area, lies about 4 km north of the shoreline.

Gaviota is an unincorporated community that has a sparse population (less than 100), and the coastal zone is largely open space that is locally used for cattle grazing. The Union Pacific railroad tracks extend westward along the coast through the entire map area, within a few hundred meters of the shoreline. Highway 101 crosses the eastern part of the map area, also along the coast, then turns north (inland) and travels through Cañada de la Gaviota and Gaviota Pass en route to Buellton. Gaviota State Park lies at the mouth of Cañada de la Gaviota. West of Gaviota, the onland coastal zone is occupied by the Hollister Ranch, a privately owned, gated community that has no public access.

The map area has a long history of petroleum exploration and development. Several offshore gas fields were discovered and were developed by onshore directional drilling in the 1950s and 1960s. Three offshore petroleum platforms were installed in adjacent federal waters in 1976 (platform “Honda”) and 1989 (platforms “Heritage” and “Harmony”). Local offshore and onshore operations were serviced for more than a century by the Gaviota marine terminal, which is currently being decommissioned and will be abandoned in an intended transition to public open space.

 The Offshore of Gaviota map area lies within the western Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight, and it is somewhat protected from large Pacific swells from the north and northwest by Point Conception and from south and southwest swells by offshore islands and banks. Much of the shoreline in the map area is characterized by narrow beaches that have thin sediment cover, backed by low (10- to 20-m-high) cliffs that are capped by a narrow coastal terrace. Beaches are subject to wave erosion during winter storms, followed by gradual sediment recovery or accretion in the late spring, summer, and fall months during the gentler wave climate.

The map area lies in the western-central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, which is characterized by west-to-east transport of sediment from Point Arguello on the northwest to Hueneme and Mugu Canyons on the southeast. Sediment supply to the western and central part of the littoral cell is mainly from relatively small coastal watersheds. In the map area, sediment sources include Cañada de la Gaviota (52 km2), as well as Cañada de la Llegua, Arroyo el Bulito, Cañada de Santa Anita, Cañada de Alegria, Cañada del Agua Caliente, Cañada del Barro, Cañada del Leon, Cañada San Onofre, and many others. Coastal-watershed discharge and sediment load are highly variable, characterized by brief large events during major winter storms and long periods of low (or no) flow and minimal sediment load between storms. In recent (recorded) history, the majority of high-discharge, high-sediment-flux events have been associated with El Niño phases of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation climatic pattern.

Shelf width in the Offshore of Gaviota map area ranges from about 4.3 to 4.7 km, and shelf slopes average about 1.0° to 1.2° but are highly variable because of the presence of the large Gaviota sediment bar. This bar extends southwestward for about 9 km from the mouth of Cañada de la Gaviota to the shelf break, is as wide as 2 km, and is by far the largest shore-attached sediment bar in the Santa Barbara Channel. The shelf is underlain by bedrock and variable amounts (0 to as much as 36 m in the Gaviota bar) of upper Quaternary sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated in the late Pleistocene. The trend of the shelf break changes from about 276° to 236° azimuth over a distance of about 12 km, and it ranges in depth from about 91 m to as shallow as 62 to 73 m where significant shelf-break and upper-slope failure and landsliding has apparently occurred. The shelf break in the western part of the map area is notably embayed by the heads of three large (150- to 300-m-wide) channels that have been referred to as “the Gaviota Canyons” or as “Drake Canyon,” “Sacate Canyon,” and “Alegria Canyon.”

Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft, unconsolidated sediment interspersed with isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities in the nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deeper water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Gaviota map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats lie primarily within the Shelf (continental shelf) but also partly within the Flank (basin flank or continental slope) megahabitats. The fairly homogeneous seafloor of sediment and low-relief bedrock provides characteristic habitat for rockfish, groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms. Several areas of smooth sediment form nearshore terraces that have relatively steep, smooth fronts, which may be attractive to groundfish. Below the steep shelf break, soft, unconsolidated sediment is interrupted by the heads of several submarine canyons and rills, some bedrock exposures, and small carbonate mounds associated with asphalt mounds and pockmarks, also good potential habitat for rockfish. The map area includes the relatively small (5.2 km2) Kashtayit State Marine Conservation Area, which largely occupies the inner part of the Gaviota sediment bar.

California State Waters Map Series — Offshore of Point Conception, California

Released April 20, 2018 16:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1024

Samuel Y. Johnson, Peter Dartnell, Guy R. Cochrane, Stephen R. Hartwell, Nadine E. Golden, Rikk G. Kvitek, Clifton W. Davenport

Samuel Y. Johnson, Susan A. Cochran, editor(s)

Introduction

In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.

The Offshore of Point Conception map area is in the westernmost part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and this region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The offshore part of the map area lies south of the steep south and west flanks of the Santa Ynez Mountains. The crest of the range, which has a maximum elevation of about 340 m in the map area, lies about 5 km north and east of the arcuate shoreline.

The onland part of the coastal zone is remote and sparsely populated. The road to Jalama Beach County Park provides the only public coastal access in the entire map area. North of this county park, the coastal zone is part of Vandenberg Air Force Base. South of Jalama Beach County Park, most of the coastal zone is part of the Cojo-Jalama Ranch, purchased by the Nature Conservancy in December 2017. A relatively small part of the coastal zone in the eastern part of the map area lies within the privately owned Hollister Ranch. The nearest significant commercial centers are Lompoc (population, about 42,000), about 10 km north of the map area, and Goleta (population, about 30,000), about 50 km east of the map area. The Union Pacific railroad tracks run west and northwest along the coast through the entire map area, within a few hundred meters of the shoreline. The map area has a long history of petroleum exploration, and the seafloor notably includes large asphalt mounds and pockmarks that result from petroleum seepage. Several offshore gas and oil fields were discovered, and some were developed, in and on the margin of California’s State Waters.

Much of the shoreline in the Offshore of Point Conception map area is characterized by narrow beaches that have thin sediment cover above bedrock platforms, backed by low (10- to 20-m-high) cliffs that are capped by a coastal terrace. Beaches are subject to wave erosion during winter storms, followed by gradual sediment recovery or accretion in the late spring, summer, and fall months during the gentler wave climate. The map area lies in the west-central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, which is characterized by west-to-east transport of sediment from Point Arguello on the northwest to Hueneme and Mugu Canyons on the southeast. Sediment supply to the map area is mainly from relatively small coastal watersheds, including the Jalama Creek–Espada Creek drainage basin (about 63 km2), as well as Cañada del Jolloru, Black Canyon, Wood Canyon, Cañada del Cojo, and Barranca Honda. Coastal-watershed discharge and sediment load are highly variable, characterized by brief large events during major winter storms and long periods of low (or no) flow and minimal sediment load between storms. In recent (recorded) history, the majority of high-discharge, high-sediment-flux events have been associated with El Niño phases of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation climatic pattern.

Following the coastline, the shelf bends to the north and northwest around Point Conception, and the trend of the shelf break changes from about 298° to 241° azimuth. Shelf width ranges from about 5 km south of Point Conception to about 11 km northwest of it; the slope ranges from about 1.0° to 1.2° to about 0.7° south and northwest of Point Conception, respectively. Southwest of Point Conception, the shelf break and upper slope are incised by a 600-m-wide, 20- to 30-m-deep, south-facing trough, one of five heads of the informally named Arguello submarine canyon.

The map area is located at a major biogeographic transition zone between the east-west-trending Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight and the northwest-trending central California coast. North of Point Conception, the coast is subjected to high wave exposure from the north, west, and south, as well as consistently strong upwelling that brings cold, nutrient-rich waters to the surface. Southeast of Point Conception, the Santa Barbara Channel is largely protected from strong north swells by Point Conception and from south swells by the Channel Islands; surface waters are warmer, and upwelling is weak and seasonal.

Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft, unconsolidated sediment interspersed with isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities in the nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deeper water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Point Conception map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats lie primarily within the Shelf (continental shelf) but also partly within the Flank (basin flank or continental slope) megahabitats. The fairly homogeneous seafloor of sediment and low-relief bedrock provides characteristic habitat for rockfish, groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms. Several areas of smooth sediment form nearshore terraces that have relatively steep, smooth fronts, which are attractive to groundfish. Below the steep shelf break, soft, unconsolidated sediment is interrupted by the heads of several submarine canyons, gullies, and rills, also good potential habitat for rockfish. The map area includes the large (58.3 km2) Point Conception State Marine Reserve.

Bedrock Geologic Map of the Lisbon Quadrangle, and Parts of the Sugar Hill and East Haverhill Quadrangles, Grafton County,
New Hampshire

Released April 20, 2018 15:15 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1016

Douglas W. Rankin

The bedrock geologic map of the Lisbon quadrangle, and parts of the Sugar Hill and East Haverhill quadrangles, Grafton County, New Hampshire, covers an area of approximately
73 square miles (189 square kilometers) in west-central New Hampshire. This map was created as part of a larger effort to produce a new bedrock geologic map of Vermont through the collection of field data at a scale of 1:24,000. A large part of the map area consists of the Bronson Hill anticlinorium, a post-Early Devonian structure that is cored by metamorphosed Cambrian to Devonian sedimentary, volcanic, and plutonic rocks.

The Bronson Hill anticlinorium is the apex of the Middle Ordovician to earliest-Silurian Bronson Hill magmatic arc that contains the Ammonoosuc Volcanics, Partridge Formation, and Oliverian Plutonic Suite, and extends from Maine, through western New Hampshire (down the eastern side of the Connecticut River), through southern New England to Long Island Sound. The deformed and partially eroded arc is locally overlain by a relatively thin Silurian section of metasedimentary rocks (Clough Quartzite and Fitch Formation) that thickens to the east. The Silurian section near Littleton is disconformably overlain by a thicker, Lower Devonian section that includes mostly metasedimentary and minor metavolcanic rocks of the Littleton Formation. The Bronson Hill anticlinorium is bisected by a series of northeast-southwest trending Mesozoic normal faults. Primarily among them is the steeply northwest-dipping Ammonoosuc fault that divides older and younger units (lower and upper sections) of the Ammonoosuc Volcanics. The Ammonoosuc Volcanics are lithologically complex and predominantly include interlayered and interfingered rhyolitic to basaltic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as lesser amounts of slate, phyllite, ironstone, chert, sandstone, and pelite. The Albee Formation underlies the Ammonoosuc Volcanics and is predominantly composed of interbedded metamorphosed sandstone, siltstone, and phyllite.

During the Late Ordovician, a series of arc-related plutons intruded the Ammonoosuc Volcanics including the Moody Ledge pluton and the Scrag granite of Billings (1937). Subsequent plutonism related to the Acadian orogeny occurred after volcanism and deposition resulted in the Littleton Formation during the Late Devonian, including the intrusion of the Haverhill pluton and French Pond Granite found in the southern part of the map.

This report consists of a geologic map and an online geographic information systems database that includes contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The geologic map is intended to serve as a foundation for applying geologic information to problems involving land use decisions, groundwater availability and quality, earth resources such as natural aggregate for construction, assessment of natural hazards, and engineering and environmental studies for waste disposal sites and construction projects.

Bedrock Geologic Map of the Miles Pond and Concord Quadrangles, Essex and Caledonia Counties, Vermont, and Grafton County, New Hampshire

Released April 20, 2018 15:15 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1025

Douglas W. Rankin

The bedrock geologic map of the Miles Pond and Concord quadrangles covers an area of approximately 107 square miles (276 square kilometers) in east-central Vermont and adjacent New Hampshire, north of and along the Connecticut River. This map was created as part of a larger effort to produce a new bedrock geologic map of Vermont through the collection of field data at a scale of 1:24,000. The majority of the map area consists of the Bronson Hill anticlinorium, a post-Early Devonian structure that is cored by metamorphosed Cambrian to Silurian sedimentary, volcanic, and plutonic rocks. A major feature on the map is the Monroe fault, interpreted to be a west-directed, steeply dipping Late Devonian (Acadian) thrust fault. To the west of the Monroe fault, rocks of the Connecticut Valley-Gaspé trough dominate and consist primarily of metamorphosed Silurian and Devonian sedimentary rocks. To the north, the Victory pluton intrudes the Bronson Hill anticlinorium. The Bronson Hill anticlinorium consists of the metamorphosed Albee Formation, the Ammonoosuc Volcanics, the Comerford Intrusive Complex, the Highlandcroft Granodiorite, and the Joselin Turn tonalite. The Albee Formation is an interlayered, feldspathic metasandstone and pelite that is locally sulfidic. Much of the deformed metasandstone is tectonically pinstriped. In places, one can see compositional layering that was transposed by a steeply southeast-dipping foliation. The Ammonoosuc Volcanics are lithologically complex and predominantly include interlayered and interfingered rhyolitic to basaltic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as lesser amounts of siltstone, phyllite, graywacke, and grit. The Comerford Intrusive Complex crops out east of the Monroe fault and consists of metamorphosed gabbro, diorite, tonalite, aplitic tonalite, and crosscutting diabase dikes. Abundant mafic dikes from the Comerford Intrusive Complex intruded the Albee Formation and Ammonoosuc Volcanics east of the Monroe fault. The Highlandcroft Granodiorite and Joslin Turn tonalite plutons intruded during the Middle to Late Ordovician.

West of the Monroe fault, the Connecticut Valley-Gaspé trough consists of the Silurian and Devonian Waits River and Gile Mountain Formations. The Waits River Formation is a carbonaceous muscovite-biotite-quartz (±garnet) phyllite containing abundant beds of micaceous quartz-rich limestone. The Gile Mountain Formation consists of interlayered metasandstone and graphitic (and commonly sulfidic) slate, along with minor calcareous metasandstone and ironstone. Graded bedding is common in the Gile Mountain Formation. Rocks of the Devonian New Hampshire Plutonic Suite intruded as plutons, dikes, and sills. The largest of these is the Victory pluton, which consists of weakly foliated, biotite granite and granodiorite. The Victory pluton also intruded a large part of the Albee Formation to the north.

This report consists of a geologic map and an online geographic information systems database that includes contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The geologic map is intended to serve as a foundation for applying geologic information to problems involving land use decisions, groundwater availability and quality, earth resources such as natural aggregate for construction, assessment of natural hazards, and engineering and environmental studies for waste disposal sites and construction projects.

U.S. Geological Survey continuous monitoring workshop—Workshop summary report

Released April 20, 2018 14:15 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1059

Daniel J. Sullivan, John K. Joiner, Kerry A. Caslow, Mark N. Landers, Brian A. Pellerin, Patrick P. Rasmussen, Rodney A. Sheets

Executive Summary

The collection of high-frequency (in other words, “continuous”) water data has been made easier over the years because of advances in technologies to measure, transmit, store, and query large, temporally dense datasets. Commercially available, in-situ sensors and data-collection platforms—together with new techniques for data analysis—provide an opportunity to monitor water quantity and quality at time scales during which meaningful changes occur. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Continuous Monitoring Workshop was held to build stronger collaboration within the Water Mission Area on the collection, interpretation, and application of continuous monitoring data; share technical approaches for the collection and management of continuous data that improves consistency and efficiency across the USGS; and explore techniques and tools for the interpretation of continuous monitoring data, which increases the value to cooperators and the public. The workshop was organized into three major themes: Collecting Continuous Data, Understanding and Using Continuous Data, and Observing and Delivering Continuous Data in the Future. Presentations each day covered a variety of related topics, with a special session at the end of each day designed to bring discussion and problem solving to the forefront.

The workshop brought together more than 70 USGS scientists and managers from across the Water Mission Area and Water Science Centers. Tools to manage, assure, control quality, and explore large streams of continuous water data are being developed by the USGS and other organizations and will be critical to making full use of these high-frequency data for research and monitoring. Disseminating continuous monitoring data and findings relevant to critical cooperator and societal issues is central to advancing the USGS networks and mission. Several important outcomes emerged from the presentations and breakout sessions.

The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) T cell receptor loci exhibit V subgroup synteny and chain-specific evolution

Released April 20, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Developmental and Comparative Immunology (85) 71-85

Breanna Breaux, Margaret Hunter, Maria Paula Cruz-Schneider, Leonardo Sena, Robert K. Bonde, Michael F. Criscitiello

The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has limited diversity in the immunoglobulin heavy chain. We therefore investigated the antigen receptor loci of the other arm of the adaptive immune system: the T cell receptor. Manatees are the first species from Afrotheria, a basal eutherian superorder, to have an in-depth characterization of all T cell receptor loci. By annotating the genome and expressed transcripts, we found that each chain has distinct features that correlates to their individual functions. The genomic organization also plays a role in modulating sequence conservation between species. There were extensive V subgroup synteny blocks in the TRA and TRB loci between T. m. latirostrisand human. Increased genomic locus complexity correlated to increased locus synteny. We also identified evidence for a VHD pseudogene for the first time in a eutherian mammal. These findings emphasize the value of including species within this basal eutherian radiation in comparative studies.

Carbonate system parameters of an algal-dominated reef along west Maui

Released April 20, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Biogeosciences

Nancy G. Prouty, Kimberly K. Yates, Nathan A. Smiley, Christopher Gallagher, Olivia Cheriton, Curt Storlazzi

Constraining coral reef metabolism and carbon chemistry dynamics are fundamental for understanding and predicting reef vulnerability to rising coastal CO2 concentrations and decreasing seawater pH. However, few studies exist along reefs occupying densely inhabited shorelines with known input from land-based sources of pollution. The shallow coral reefs off Kahekili, West Maui, are exposed to nutrient-enriched, low-pH submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and are particularly vulnerable to the compounding stressors from land-based sources of pollution and lower seawater pH. To constrain the carbonate chemistry system, nutrients and carbonate chemistry were measured along the Kahekili reef flat every 4 h over a 6-d sampling period in March 2016. Abiotic process – primarily SGD fluxes – controlled the carbonate chemistry adjacent to the primary SGD vent site, with nutrient-laden freshwater decreasing pH levels and favoring undersaturated aragonite saturation (Ωarag) conditions. In contrast, diurnal variability in the carbonate chemistry at other sites along the reef flat was driven by reef community metabolism. Superimposed on the diurnal signal was a transition during the second sampling period to a surplus of total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) compared to ocean end-member TA and DIC measurements. A shift from net community production and calcification to net respiration and carbonate dissolution was identified. This transition occurred during a period of increased SGD-driven nutrient loading, lower wave height, and reduced current speeds. This detailed study of carbon chemistry dynamics highlights the need to incorporate local effects of nearshore oceanographic processes into predictions of coral reef vulnerability and resilience.

Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Sucker Year Class Formation, Survival, and Growth in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California—2016 Monitoring Report

Released April 20, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1066

Summer M. Burdick, Carl O. Ostberg, Marshal S. Hoy

Executive Summary

The largest populations of federally endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) exist in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California. Upper Klamath Lake populations are decreasing because adult mortality, which is relatively low, is not being balanced by recruitment of young adult suckers into known spawning aggregations. Most Upper Klamath Lake juvenile sucker mortality appears to occur within the first year of life. Annual production of juvenile suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir appears to be highly variable and may not occur at all in very dry years. However, juvenile sucker survival is much higher in Clear Lake, with non-trivial numbers of suckers surviving to join spawning aggregations. Long-term monitoring of juvenile sucker populations is needed to (1) determine if there are annual and species-specific differences in production, survival, and growth, (2) to identify the season (summer or winter) in which most mortality occurs, and (3) to help identify potential causes of high juvenile sucker mortality, particularly in Upper Klamath Lake.

We initiated an annual juvenile sucker monitoring program in 2015 to track cohorts in 3 months (June, August, and September) annually in Upper Klamath Lake and Clear Lake Reservoir. We tracked annual variability in age-0 sucker apparent production, juvenile sucker apparent survival, and apparent growth. Using genetic markers, we were able to classify suckers as one of three taxa: shortnose or Klamath largescale suckers, Lost River, or suckers with genetic markers of both species (Intermediate Prob[LRS]). Using catch data, we generated taxa-specific indices of year class strength, August–September apparent survival, and overwinter apparent survival. We also examined prevalence and severity of afflictions such as parasites, wounds, and deformities.

Indices of year class strength in Upper Klamath Lake were similar for shortnose suckers in 2015 and 2016, but about twice as high for Lost River suckers and suckers having intermediate Prob[LRS] in 2016 than in 2015. Indices of apparent August–September survival were lower in 2016 (0.41) than in 2015 (1.07) for shortnose suckers and suckers identified as having intermediate Prob [LRS] (0.14 in 2016 and 1.69 in 2015). Indices of apparent August—September survival were similar in 2016 (0.16) and 2015 (0.07) for Lost River suckers. Indices of apparent survival were lower for age-0 Lost River suckers than age-0 shortnose suckers in both years. Although samples sizes are small, a declining trend in the ratio of Lost River to shortnose suckers from 28/23 (1.22) as age-0 fish in September of 2015 to 1/9 (0.11) as age-1 fish in June of 2016 is consistent with higher over winter apparent mortality for Lost River suckers than shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake.

Shortnose sucker year class strength was greater in years with high Willow Creek inflows and Clear Lake surface elevation during the spawning season, indicating that access to spawning habitat was an important contributing factor. In previous sampling, age-0 sucker catch per unit effort (CPUE) was relatively high in 2011 and 2012, moderately high in 2013, and zero in 2014 and 2015. The 2011 and 2012 year classes continued to be detected, but the 2013 year class went undetected for the first time in 2016. The 2014 year class continued to be undetected in 2016. Three suckers with one annulus each on fin rays were captured in Clear Lake in 2016. Although these fish are potential representatives of the 2015 year class, they were small for their age, indicating they may have hatched in 2016. Age-0 shortnose and Lost River suckers were captured in Clear Lake in 2016, indicating new cohorts of both taxa were produced. Moderate to abundant year classes were produced in 2011, 2012, and 2016 when lake surface elevation greater than 1,378.9 m (4,524 ft) during the February–June spawning season. Also in 2011 and 2016, rapid increases in lake-surface elevation indicated potentially high Willow Creek inflows. A somewhat less abundant year class produced in 2012 than in 2011 and 2016 was associated with lower spawning season inflows. The apparently smaller 2013 year class was formed when Willow Creek inflows were apparently low and lake surface never exceeded 1,379.2 m (4,524.9 ft). In 2014 and 2015, when year-classes were small or not detected, the Clear Lake surface elevations were at or below 1,378.2 m (4,522 ft), and there was very little spring time Willow Creek inflow.

Age-0 shortnose sucker CPUE in Clear Lake was correlated with seasonal decreases in water volumes in 2016 and could not be used to create indices of August–September survival. Age-0 shortnose sucker catch rates in Clear Lake Reservoir were about seven times less in August than in September. Meanwhile, the water volume in Clear Lake Reservoir declined by about 36 percent between these two sampling periods. Higher September catch rates may have resulted from additional age-0 suckers entering the lake from the river, a concentrating effect of declining water volumes, or both.

Differences in August standard length, apparent growth rates, and the prevalence of abnormalities were consistent with healthier age-0 suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir than in Upper Klamath Lake. Age-0 suckers were larger in August in Clear Lake Reservoir than in Upper Klamath Lake, which may be due to an earlier hatch date, faster growth, or both in Clear Lake Reservoir. Sample sizes were only large enough to compare growth rates of age-0 shortnose suckers from Upper Klamath Lake in 2015 to Clear Lake Reservoir in 2016. Age-0 shortnose suckers grew more between August and September in Clear Lake Reservoir in 2016 than in Upper Klamath Lake in 2015. Petechial hemorrhages of the skin on age-0 suckers were more prevalent in Upper Klamath Lake than in Clear Lake Reservoir in 2016. Deformed opercula, black-spot forming parasites, and infections presumed to be Columnaris sp. were observed on less than 12 percent of suckers from Upper Klamath Lake but were not observed on suckers from Clear Lake Reservoir in 2016.

Distribution and Abundance of Least Bell’s Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) on the Middle San Luis Rey River, San Diego County, Southern California—2017 Data Summary

Released April 20, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Data Series 1082

Lisa D. Allen, Scarlett L. Howell, Barbara E. Kus

We surveyed for Least Bell’s Vireos (LBVI) (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (SWFL) (Empidonax traillii extimus) along the San Luis Rey River, between College Boulevard in Oceanside and Interstate 15 in Fallbrook, California (middle San Luis Rey River), in 2017. Surveys were conducted from April 13 to July 11 (LBVI) and from May 16 to July 28 (SWFL). We found 146 LBVI territories, at least 107 of which were occupied by pairs. Five additional transient LBVIs were detected. LBVIs used five different habitat types in the survey area: mixed willow, willow-cottonwood, willow-sycamore, riparian scrub, and upland scrub. Forty-four percent of the LBVIs occurred in habitat characterized as mixed willow and 89 percent of the LBVI territories occurred in areas with greater than 50 percent native plant cover. Of 16 banded LBVIs detected in the survey area, 8 had been given full color-band combinations prior to 2017. Four other LBVIs with single (natal) federal bands were recaptured and banded in 2017. Three LBVIs with single dark blue federal bands indicating that they were banded as nestlings on the lower San Luis Rey River and one LBVI with a single gold federal band indicating that it was banded as a nestling on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton (MCBCP) could not be recaptured for identification. One banded LBVI emigrated from the middle San Luis Rey River to the lower San Luis Rey River in 2017.

One resident SWFL territory and one transient Willow Flycatcher of unknown subspecies (WIFL) were observed in the survey area in 2017. The resident SWFL territory, which was comprised of mixed willow habitat (5–50 percent native plant cover), was occupied by a single male from May 22 to June 21, 2017. No evidence of pairing or nesting activity was observed. The SWFL male was banded with a full color-combination indicating that he was originally banded as a nestling on the middle San Luis Rey River in 2014 and successfully bred in the survey area in 2016. The male SWFL left the middle San Luis Rey River after June 21, 2017 and subsequently was detected on the San Dieguito River on June 26, 2017, by USGS biologists. The transient WIFL was detected on May 30, 2017, in mixed willow habitat comprised of 50–95 percent of native plant cover.

Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in Upper Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2017

Released April 19, 2018 15:45 EST

2018, Fact Sheet 2018-3018

Catherine B. Enomoto, Michael H. Trippi, Debra K. Higley, William A. Rouse, Frank T. Dulong, Timothy R. Klett, Tracey J. Mercier, Michael E. Brownfield, Heidi M. Leathers-Miller, Thomas M. Finn, Kristen R. Marra, Phuong A. Le, Cheryl A. Woodall, Christopher J. Schenk

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 10.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in Upper Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin Province.

U.S. Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers and U.S. Geological Survey National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center—Annual report for 2017

Released April 19, 2018 13:30 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1049

Elda Varela Minder

Introduction

The year 2017 was a year of review and renewal for the Department of the Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC). The Southeast, Northwest, Alaska, Southwest, and North Central CSCs’ 5-year summary review reports were released in 2017 and contain the findings of the external review teams led by the Cornell University Human Dimensions Research Unit in conjunction with the American Fisheries Society. The reports for the Pacific Islands, South Central, and Northeast CSCs are planned for release in 2018. The reviews provide an opportunity to evaluate aspects of the cooperative agreement, such as the effectiveness of the CSC in meeting project goals and assessment of the level of scientific contribution and achievement. These reviews serve as a way for the CSCs and NCCWSC to look for ways to recognize and enhance our network’s strengths and identify areas for improvement. The reviews were followed by the CSC recompetition, which led to new hosting agreements at the Northwest, Alaska, and Southeast CSCs. Learn more about the excellent science and activities conducted by the network centers in the 2017 annual report.

Supporting natural resource management—The role of economics at the Department of the Interior—A workshop report

Released April 19, 2018 09:30 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1054

Emily J. Pindilli, Christian S.L. Crowley, Sarah A. Cline, Anthony J. Good, Carl D. Shapiro, Benjamin M. Simon

The first U.S. Department of the Interior Economics Workshop was held April 5–7, 2017 in Washington, D.C., to identify, highlight, and better understand needs and opportunities for economic analysis to support the Department of the Interior’s mission. The Economics Workshop, jointly convened by the Department of the Interior Office of Policy Analysis and the U.S. Geological Survey Science and Decisions Center, provided an opportunity for Department of the Interior’s economists to share expertise and experiences and to build collaboration and communication channels across the Department of the Interior.

Natural and cultural resource managers face complex questions and often have to balance competing stakeholder interests. Per the mission statement, the Department of the Interior “protects and manages the Nation’s natural resources and cultural heritage; provides scientific and other information about those resources; and honors its trust responsibilities or special commitments to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and affiliated island communities.” Economic analysis is relevant to issues integral to nearly all the land and water management decisions made by the Department of the Interior. More than 80 Department of the Interior economists gathered at the Economics Workshop to share their work, discuss common challenges, and identify approaches to advance the use and contribution of economics at the Department of the Interior.

Surveys of environmental DNA (eDNA): a new approach to estimate occurrence in Vulnerable manatee populations

Released April 19, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Endangered Species Research (35) 101-111

Margaret Hunter, Gaia Meigs-Friend, Jason Ferrante, Aristide Takoukam Kamla, Robert Dorazio, Lucy Keith Diagne, Fabia Luna, Janet M. Lanyon, James P. Reid

Environmental DNA (eDNA) detection is a technique used to non-invasively detect cryptic, low density, or logistically difficult-to-study species, such as imperiled manatees. For eDNA measurement, genetic material shed into the environment is concentrated from water samples and analyzed for the presence of target species. Cytochrome bquantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR eDNA assays were developed for the 3 Vulnerable manatee species: African, Amazonian, and both subspecies of the West Indian (Florida and Antillean) manatee. Environmental DNA assays can help to delineate manatee habitat ranges, high use areas, and seasonal population changes. To validate the assay, water was analyzed from Florida’s east coast containing a high-density manatee population and produced 31564 DNA molecules l-1on average and high occurrence (ψ) and detection (p) estimates (ψ = 0.84 [0.40-0.99]; p = 0.99 [0.95-1.00]; limit of detection 3 copies µl-1). Similar occupancy estimates were produced in the Florida Panhandle (ψ = 0.79 [0.54-0.97]) and Cuba (ψ = 0.89 [0.54-1.00]), while occupancy estimates in Cameroon were lower (ψ = 0.49 [0.09-0.95]). The eDNA-derived detection estimates were higher than those generated using aerial survey data on the west coast of Florida and may be effective for population monitoring. Subsequent eDNA studies could be particularly useful in locations where manatees are (1) difficult to identify visually (e.g. the Amazon River and Africa), (2) are present in patchy distributions or are on the verge of extinction (e.g. Jamaica, Haiti), and (3) where repatriation efforts are proposed (e.g. Brazil, Guadeloupe). Extension of these eDNA techniques could be applied to other imperiled marine mammal populations such as African and Asian dugongs.

Urban growth and landscape connectivity threats assessment at Saguaro National Park, Arizona, USA

Released April 19, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Land Use Science

Ryan Perkl, Laura M. Norman, David Mitchell, Mark R. Feller, Garrett Smith, Natalie R. Wilson

Urban and exurban expansion results in habitat and biodiversity loss globally. We hypothesize that a coupled-model approach could connect urban planning for future cities with landscape ecology to consider wildland habitat connectivity. Our work combines urban growth simulations with models of wildlife corridors to examine how species will be impacted by development to test this hypothesis. We leverage a land use change model (SLEUTH) with structural and functional landscape-connectivity modeling techniques to ascertain the spatial extent and locations of connectivity related threats to a national park in southern Arizona, USA, and describe how protected areas might be impacted by urban expansion. Results of projected growth significantly altered structural connectivity (80%) when compared to current (baseline) corridor conditions. Moreover, projected growth impacted functional connectivity differently amongst species, indicating resilience of some species and near-complete displacement of others. We propose that implementing a geospatial-design-based model will allow for a better understanding of the impacts management decisions have on wildlife populations. The application provides the potential to understand both human and environmental impacts of land-system dynamics, critical for long-term sustainability.

Opportunistically collected data reveal habitat selection by migrating Whooping Cranes in the U.S. Northern Plains

Released April 19, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, The Condor (120) 343-356

Neil D. Niemuth, Adam J. Ryba, Aaron T. Pearse, Susan M. Kvas, David Brandt, Brian Wangler, Jane Austin, Martha J. Carlisle

The Whooping Crane (Grus americana) is a federally endangered species in the United States and Canada that relies on wetland, grassland, and cropland habitat during its long migration between wintering grounds in coastal Texas, USA, and breeding sites in Alberta and Northwest Territories, Canada. We combined opportunistic Whooping Crane sightings with landscape data to identify correlates of Whooping Crane occurrence along the migration corridor in North Dakota and South Dakota, USA. Whooping Cranes selected landscapes characterized by diverse wetland communities and upland foraging opportunities. Model performance substantially improved when variables related to detection were included, emphasizing the importance of accounting for biases associated with detection and reporting of birds in opportunistic datasets. We created a predictive map showing relative probability of occurrence across the study region by applying our model to GIS data layers; validation using independent, unbiased locations from birds equipped with platform transmitting terminals indicated that our final model adequately predicted habitat use by migrant Whooping Cranes. The probability map demonstrated that existing conservation efforts have protected much top-tier Whooping Crane habitat, especially in the portions of North Dakota and South Dakota that lie east of the Missouri River. Our results can support species recovery by informing prioritization for acquisition and restoration of landscapes that provide safe roosting and foraging habitats. Our results can also guide the siting of structures such as wind towers and electrical transmission and distribution lines, which pose a strike and mortality risk to migrating Whooping Cranes.

A time-lapse gravity survey of the Coso geothermal field, China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station, California

Released April 19, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1053

Geoffrey Phelps, Collin Cronkite-Ratcliff, Kelly Blake

We have conducted a gravity survey of the Coso geothermal field to continue the time-lapse gravity study of the area initiated in 1991. In this report, we outline a method of processing the gravity data that minimizes the random errors and instrument bias introduced into the data by the Scintrex CG-5 relative gravimeters that were used. After processing, the standard deviation of the data was estimated to be ±13 microGals. These data reveal that the negative gravity anomaly over the Coso geothermal field, centered on gravity station CER1, is continuing to increase in magnitude over time. Preliminary modeling indicates that water-table drawdown at the location of CER1 is between 65 and 326 meters over the last two decades. We note, however, that several assumptions on which the model results depend, such as constant elevation and free-water level over the study period, still require verification.

Coastal estuaries and lagoons: The delicate balance at the edge of the sea

Released April 19, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Fact Sheet 2018-3022

Paul A. Conrads, Kirk D. Rodgers, Davina L. Passeri, Scott T. Prinos, Christopher Smith, Christopher M. Swarzenski, Beth A. Middleton

Coastal communities are increasingly concerned about the dynamic balance between freshwater and saltwater because of its implications for societal, economic, and ecological resources. While the mixing of freshwater and saltwater sources defines coastal estuaries and lagoons, sudden changes in this balance can have a large effect on critical ecosystems and infrastructure. Any change to the delivery of water from either source has the potential to affect the health of both humans and natural biota and also to damage coastal infrastructure. This fact sheet discusses the potential of major shifts in the dynamic freshwater-saltwater balance to alter the environment and coastal stability.

Monitoring stream temperatures—A guide for non-specialists

Released April 19, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Techniques and Methods 3-A25

Michael P. Heck, Luke D. Schultz, David Hockman-Wert, Eric C. Dinger, Jason B. Dunham

Executive Summary

Water temperature influences most physical and biological processes in streams, and along with streamflows is a major driver of ecosystem processes. Collecting data to measure water temperature is therefore imperative, and relatively straightforward. Several protocols exist for collecting stream temperature data, but these are frequently directed towards specialists. This document was developed to address the need for a protocol intended for non-specialists (non-aquatic) staff. It provides specific step-by-step procedures on (1) how to launch data loggers, (2) check the factory calibration of data loggers prior to field use, (3) how to install data loggers in streams for year-round monitoring, (4) how to download and retrieve data loggers from the field, and (5) how to input project data into organizational databases.

Uranium concentrations in groundwater, northeastern Washington

Released April 18, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Map 3401

Sue C. Kahle, Wendy B. Welch, Alison E. Tecca, Devin M. Eliason

A study of uranium in groundwater in northeastern Washington was conducted to make a preliminary assessment of naturally occurring uranium in groundwater relying on existing information and limited reconnaissance sampling. Naturally occurring uranium is associated with granitic and metasedimentary rocks, as well as younger sedimentary deposits, that occur in this region. The occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater is poorly understood. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates uranium in Group A community water systems at a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 30 μg/L in order to reduce uranium exposure, protect from toxic kidney effects of uranium, and reduce the risk of cancer. However, most existing private wells in the study area, generally for single family use, have not been sampled for uranium. This document presents available uranium concentration data from throughout a multi-county region, identifies data gaps, and suggests further study aimed at understanding the occurrence of uranium in groundwater.

The study encompasses about 13,000 square miles (mi2) in the northeastern part of Washington with a 2010 population of about 563,000. Other than the City of Spokane, most of the study area is rural with small towns interspersed throughout the region. The study area also includes three Indian Reservations with small towns and scattered population. The area has a history of uranium exploration and mining, with two inactive uranium mines on the Spokane Indian Reservation and one smaller inactive mine on the outskirts of Spokane. Historical (1977–2016) uranium in groundwater concentration data were used to describe and illustrate the general occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater, as well as to identify data deficiencies. Uranium concentrations were detected at greater than 1 microgram per liter (μg/L) in 60 percent of the 2,382 historical samples (from wells and springs). Uranium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 88,600 μg/L, and the median concentration of uranium in groundwater for all sites was 1.4 μg/L.

New (2017) uranium in groundwater concentration data were obtained by sampling 13 private domestic wells for uranium in areas without recent (2000s) water-quality data. Uranium was detected in all 13 wells sampled for this study; concentrations ranged from 1.03 to 1,180 μg/L with a median of 22 μg/L. Uranium concentrations of groundwater samples from 6 of the 13 wells exceeded the MCL for uranium. Uranium concentrations in water samples from two wells were 1,130 and 1,180 μg/L, respectively; nearly 40 times the MCL.

Additional data collection and analysis are needed in rural areas where self-supplied groundwater withdrawals are the primary source of water for human consumption. Of the roughly 43,000 existing water wells in the study area, only 1,755 wells, as summarized in this document, have available uranium concentration data, and some of those data are decades old. Furthermore, analysis of area groundwater quality would benefit from a more extensive chemical-analysis suite including general chemistry in order to better understand local geochemical conditions that largely govern the mobility of uranium. Although the focus of the present study is uranium, it also is important to recognize that there are other radionuclides of concern that may be present in area groundwater.

The HayWired Earthquake Scenario

Released April 17, 2018 12:00 EST

2017, Scientific Investigations Report 2017-5013

Shane T. Detweiler, Anne M. Wein, editor(s)

Foreword

The 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.

With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.

The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the interconnectedness of infrastructure, society, and our economy. How would this earthquake scenario, striking close to Silicon Valley, impact our interconnected world in ways and at a scale we have not experienced in any previous domestic earthquake?

The area of present-day Contra Costa, Alameda, and Santa Clara Counties contended with a magnitude-6.8 earthquake in 1868 on the Hayward Fault. Although sparsely populated then, about 30 people were killed and extensive property damage resulted. The question of what an earthquake like that would do today has been examined before and is now revisited in the HayWired scenario. Scientists have documented a series of prehistoric earthquakes on the Hayward Fault and are confident that the threat of a future earthquake, like that modeled in the HayWired scenario, is real and could happen at any time. The team assembled to build this scenario has brought innovative new approaches to examining the natural hazards, impacts, and consequences of such an event. Such an earthquake would also be accompanied by widespread liquefaction and landslides, which are treated in greater detail than ever before. The team also considers how the now-prototype ShakeAlert earthquake early warning system could provide useful public alerts and automatic actions.

Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5013 and accompanying data releases are the products of an effort led by the USGS, but this body of work was created through the combined efforts of a large team including partners who have come together to form the HayWired Coalition (see chapter A). Use of the HayWired scenario has already begun. More than a full year of intensive partner engagement, beginning in April 2017, is being directed toward producing the most in-depth look ever at the impacts and consequences of a large earthquake on the Hayward Fault. With the HayWired scenario, our hope is to encourage and support the active ongoing engagement of the entire community of the San Francisco Bay region by providing the scientific, engineering, and economic and social science inputs for use in exercises and planning well into the future.

As HayWired volumes are published, they will be made available at https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20175013.

Thinning, tree-growth, and resistance to multi-year drought in a mixed-conifer forest of northern California

Released April 17, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Forest Ecology and Management (422) 190-198

Michael J. Vernon, Rosemary L. Sherriff, Phillip van Mantgem, Jeffrey M. Kane

Drought is an important stressor in forest ecosystems that can influence tree vigor and survival. In the U.S., forest managers use two primary management techniques to promote resistance and resilience to drought: prescribed fire and mechanical thinning. Generally applied to reduce fuels and fire hazard, treatments may also reduce competition for resources that may improve tree-growth and reduce mortality during drought. A recent severe and prolonged drought in California provided a natural experiment to investigate tree-growth responses to fuel treatments and climatic stress. We assessed tree-growth from 299 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in treated and untreated stands during severe drought from 2012 to 2015 in the mixed-conifer forests of Whiskeytown National Recreation Area (WNRA) in northern California. The treatment implemented at WNRA removed 34% of live basal area through mechanical thinning with a subsequent pile burning of residual fuels. Tree-growth was positively associated with crown ratio and negatively associated with competition and a 1-year lag of climate water deficit, an index of drought. Douglas-fir generally had higher annual growth than ponderosa pine, although factors affecting growth were the same for both species. Drought resistance, expressed as the ratio between mean growth during drought and mean growth pre-drought, was higher in treated stands compared to untreated stands during both years of severe drought (2014 and 2015) for ponderosa pine but only one year (2014) for Douglas-fir. Thinning improved drought resistance, but tree size, competition and species influenced this response. On-going thinning treatments focused on fuels and fire hazard reduction are likely to be effective at promoting growth and greater drought resistance in dry mixed-conifer forests. Given the likelihood of future droughts, land managers may choose to implement similar treatments to reduce potential impacts.

Decision support frameworks and tools for conservation

Released April 17, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Conservation Letters (11) 1-12

Mark W. Schwartz, Carly N. Cook, Robert L. Pressey, Andrew S. Pullin, Michael C. Runge, Nick Salafsky, William J. Sutherland, Matthew A. Williamson

The practice of conservation occurs within complex socioecological systems fraught with challenges that require transparent, defensible, and often socially engaged project planning and management. Planning and decision support frameworks are designed to help conservation practitioners increase planning rigor, project accountability, stakeholder participation, transparency in decisions, and learning. We describe and contrast five common frameworks within the context of six fundamental questions (why, who, what, where, when, how) at each of three planning stages of adaptive management (project scoping, operational planning, learning). We demonstrate that decision support frameworks provide varied and extensive tools for conservation planning and management. However, using any framework in isolation risks diminishing potential benefits since no one framework covers the full spectrum of potential conservation planning and decision challenges. We describe two case studies that have effectively deployed tools from across conservation frameworks to improve conservation actions and outcomes. Attention to the critical questions for conservation project planning should allow practitioners to operate within any framework and adapt tools to suit their specific management context. We call on conservation researchers and practitioners to regularly use decision support tools as standard practice for framing both practice and research.

Evaluating autonomous acoustic surveying techniques for rails in tidal marshes

Released April 17, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Wildlife Society Bulletin (42) 78-83

Lydia L. Stiffler, James T. Anderson, Todd Katzner

There is a growing interest toward the use of autonomous recording units (ARUs) for acoustic surveying of secretive marsh bird populations. However, there is little information on how ARUs compare to human surveyors or how best to use ARU data that can be collected continuously throughout the day. We used ARUs to conduct 2 acoustic surveys for king (Rallus elegans) and clapper rails (R. crepitans) within a tidal marsh complex along the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA, during May–July 2015. To determine the effectiveness of an ARU in replacing human personnel, we compared results of callback point‐count surveys with concurrent acoustic recordings and calculated estimates of detection probability for both rail species combined. The success of ARUs at detecting rails that human observers recorded decreased with distance (P ≤ 0.001), such that at <25 m, 90.3% of human‐recorded rails also were detected by the ARU, but at >75 m, only 34.0% of human‐detected rails were detected by the ARU. To determine a subsampling scheme for continuous ARU data that allows for effective surveying of presence and call rates of rails, we used ARUs to conduct 15 continuous 48‐hr passive surveys, generating 720 hr of recordings. We established 5 subsampling periods of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min to evaluate ARU‐based presence and vocalization detections of rails compared with each of the full 60‐min sampling of ARU‐based detection of rails. All subsampling periods resulted in different (P ≤ 0.001) detection rates and unstandardized vocalization rates compared with the hourly sampling period. However, standardized vocalization counts from the 30‐min subsampling period were not different from vocalization counts of the full hourly sampling period. When surveying rail species in estuarine environments, species‐, habitat‐, and ARU‐specific limitations to ARU sampling should be considered when making inferences about abundances and distributions from ARU data. 

Cyclic heliothermal behaviour of the shallow, hypersaline Lake Hayward, Western Australia

Released April 17, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Hydrology (560) 495-511

Jeffrey V. Turner, Michael R. Rosen, Lee Coshell, Robert J. Woodbury

Lake Hayward is one of only about 30 hypersaline lakes worldwide that is meromictic and heliothermal and as such behaves as a natural salt gradient solar pond. Lake Hayward acts as a local groundwater sink, resulting in seasonally variable hypersaline lake water with total dissolved solids (TDS) in the upper layer (mixolimnion) ranging between 56 kg m−3 and 207 kg m−3 and the deeper layer (monimolimnion) from 153 kg m−3 to 211 kg m−3. This is up to six times the salinity of seawater and thus has the highest salinity of all eleven lakes in the Yalgorup National Park lake system. A program of continuously recorded water temperature profiles has shown that salinity stratification initiated by direct rainfall onto the lake’s surface and local runoff into the lake results in the onset of heliothermal conditions within hours of rainfall onset.

The lake alternates between being fully mixed and becoming thermally and chemically stratified several times during the annual cycle, with the longest extended periods of heliothermal behaviour lasting 23 and 22 weeks in the winters of 1992 and 1993 respectively. The objective was to quantify the heat budgets of the cyclical heliothermal behaviour of Lake Hayward.

During the period of temperature profile logging, the maximum recorded temperature of the monimolimnion was 42.6 °C at which time the temperature of the mixolimnion was 29.4 °C.

The heat budget of two closed heliothermal cycles initiated by two rainfall events of 50 mm and 52 mm in 1993 were analysed. The cycles prevailed for 11 and 20 days respectively and the heat budget showed net heat accumulations of 34.2 MJ m−3 and 15.4 MJ m−3, respectively. The corresponding efficiencies of lake heat gain to incident solar energy were 0.17 and 0.18 respectively. Typically, artificial salinity gradient solar ponds (SGSP) have a solar radiation capture efficiencies ranging from 0.10 up to 0.30. Results from Lake Hayward have implications for comparative biogeochemistry and its characteristics should aid in identification of other hitherto unknown heliothermal lakes.

Brown trout in the Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River—Evaluation of causal hypotheses and potential interventions

Released April 17, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1069

Michael C. Runge, Charles B. Yackulic, Lucas S. Bair, Theodore A. Kennedy, Richard A. Valdez, Craig Ellsworth, Jeffrey L. Kershner, R. Scott Rogers, Melissa A. Trammell, Kirk L. Young

Over the period 2014–2016, the number of nonnative brown trout (Salmo trutta) captured during routine monitoring in the Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River, downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, began increasing. Management agencies and stakeholders have questioned whether the increase in brown trout in the Lees Ferry reach represents a threat to the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha), to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sport fishery, or to other resources of concern. In this report, we evaluate the evidence for the expansion of brown trout in the Lees Ferry reach, consider a range of causal hypotheses for this expansion, examine the likely efficacy of several potential management interventions to reduce brown trout, and analyze the effects of those interventions on other resources of concern.

The brown trout population at Lees Ferry historically consisted of a small number of large fish supported by low levels of immigration from downstream reaches. This population is now showing signs of sustained successful reproduction and is on the cusp of recruiting locally hatched fish into the spawning class, based on analysis with a new integrated population model. The proximate causes of this change in status are a large pulse of immigration in the fall of 2014 and higher reproductive rates in 2015–2017. The ultimate causes of this change are not clear. The pulse of immigrants from downstream reaches in fall 2014 may have been induced by three sequential high-flow releases from the dam in November of 2012–2014, but may also have been the result of a unique set of circumstances unrelated to dam operations. The increase in reproduction may have been the result of any number of changes, including an Allee effect, warmer water temperatures, a decrease in competition from rainbow trout, or fall high-flow releases. Correlations over space and time among predictor variables do not allow us to make a clear inference about the cause of the changes. Under a null causal model, and without any changes to management, we predict there is a 36-percent chance the brown trout population at Lees Ferry will not show sustained growth, and will remain around a mean size of 5,800 adults, near its current size; in contrast, we predict there is a 64-percent chance that the population has a positive intrinsic growth rate and will increase 3–10 fold over the next 20 years. A humpback chub population model linked to the brown trout model suggests an increase of brown trout of this magnitude could lead to declines in the minimum adult humpback chub population over the same time period. Forecasts of rainbow trout abundance, however, suggest that increased abundance of brown trout in the Lees Ferry reach does not pose a threat to the rainbow trout fishery there. 

There are interventions that may be effective in moderating the growth of the brown trout population in the Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River. Across causal hypotheses, we predict that removal strategies (for example, a concerted electrofishing effort or an incentivized take program targeted at large brown trout) could reduce brown trout abundance by approximately 50 percent relative to status quo management. Reductions in the frequency or a change in the seasonal timing of high-flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam could be even more effective, but only under the causal hypotheses that involve effects of such releases on immigration or reproduction. Brown trout management flows— dam releases designed to strand young fish at a vulnerable stage—may be able to reduce brown trout abundance to some degree, but are not forecast to be the most effective strategy under any causal hypothesis.

We predict that the alternative management interventions would have effects on other resource goals as well, and the pattern of these effects differs across causal hypotheses. The removal strategies would incur direct costs (on the order of $7 million over 20 years) and the mechanical removal strategy is unethical from the perspective of several tribes. The strategies that involve reducing the frequency of high-flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam would decrease the ability to transport and store sediment in the ecosystem, potentially undermining goals associated with sandbar building, recreation, and riparian vegetation, but would increase hydropower revenue. Trout management flows would reduce hydropower revenue. From the standpoint of humpback chub, the alternative strategies largely follow the effect on brown trout; when brown trout abundance is reduced, predation pressure decreases, and humpback chub viability is predicted to increase, but the variation in predicted chub viability is not large across strategies or causal hypotheses.

To design a response to brown trout, management agencies will need to navigate both the tradeoffs among resources goals and the uncertainty in the causes of the brown trout expansion. Continued monitoring, possibly coupled with new research or experimental management actions that better inform demographic and ecological dynamics, can help to reduce the causal uncertainty.

The HayWired earthquake scenario—We can outsmart disaster

Released April 17, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Fact Sheet 2018-3016

Kenneth W. Hudnut, Anne M. Wein, Dale A. Cox, Keith A. Porter, Laurie A. Johnson, Suzanne C. Perry, Jennifer L. Bruce, Drew LaPointe

The HayWired earthquake scenario, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), anticipates the impacts of a hypothetical magnitude-7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault. The fault is along the east side of California’s San Francisco Bay and is among the most active and dangerous in the United States, because it runs through a densely urbanized and interconnected region. One way to learn about a large earthquake without experiencing it is to conduct a scientifically realistic scenario. The USGS and its partners in the HayWired Coalition and the HayWired Campaign are working to energize residents and businesses to engage in ongoing and new efforts to prepare the region for such a future earthquake.

The HayWired earthquake scenario—Engineering implications

Released April 17, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2017-5013-I–Q

Shane T. Detweiler, Anne M. Wein, editor(s)

The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Engineering Implications is the second volume of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5013, which describes the HayWired scenario, developed by USGS and its partners. The scenario is a hypothetical yet scientifically realistic earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after a magnitude-7 earthquake (mainshock) on the Hayward Fault and its aftershocks.

Analyses in this volume suggest that (1) 800 deaths and 16,000 nonfatal injuries result from shaking alone, plus property and direct business interruption losses of more than $82 billion from shaking, liquefaction, and landslides; (2) the building code is designed to protect lives, but even if all buildings in the region complied with current building codes, 0.4 percent could collapse, 5 percent could be unsafe to occupy, and 19 percent could have restricted use; (3) people expect, prefer, and would be willing to pay for greater resilience of buildings; (4) more than 22,000 people could require extrication from stalled elevators, and more than 2,400 people could require rescue from collapsed buildings; (5) the average east-bay resident could lose water service for 6 weeks, some for as long as 6 months; (6) older steel-frame high-rise office buildings and new reinforced-concrete residential buildings in downtown San Francisco and Oakland could be unusable for as long as 10 months; (7) about 450 large fires could result in a loss of residential and commercial building floor area equivalent to more than 52,000 single-family homes and cause property (building and content) losses approaching $30 billion; and (8) combining earthquake early warning (ShakeAlert) with “drop, cover, and hold on” actions could prevent as many as 1,500 nonfatal injuries out of 18,000 total estimated nonfatal injuries from shaking and liquefaction hazards.

Compilation of new and previously published geochemical and modal data for Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks of the St. Francois Mountains, southeast Missouri

Released April 16, 2018 13:50 EST

2018, Data Series 1080

Edward A. du Bray, Warren C. Day, Corey J. Meighan

The purpose of this report is to present recently acquired as well as previously published geochemical and modal petrographic data for igneous rocks in the St. Francois Mountains, southeast Missouri, as part of an ongoing effort to understand the regional geology and ore deposits of the Mesoproterozoic basement rocks of southeast Missouri, USA. The report includes geochemical data that is (1) newly acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey and (2) compiled from numerous sources published during the last fifty-five years. These data are required for ongoing petrogenetic investigations of these rocks. Voluminous Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks in the St. Francois Mountains of southeast Missouri constitute the basement buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rock that is over 600 meters thick in places. The Mesoproterozoic rocks of southeast Missouri represent a significant component of approximately 1.4 billion-year-old (Ga) igneous rocks that crop out extensively in North America along the southeast margin of Laurentia and subsequent researchers suggested that iron oxide-copper deposits in the St. Francois Mountains are genetically associated with ca. 1.4 Ga magmatism in this region. The geochemical and modal data sets described herein were compiled to support investigations concerning the tectonic setting and petrologic processes responsible for the associated magmatism.

Titanium mineral resources in heavy-mineral sands in the Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

Released April 16, 2018 11:35 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5045

Bradley S. Van Gosen, Karl J. Ellefsen

This study examined titanium distribution in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States; the titanium is found in heavy-mineral sands that include the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), or leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Deposits of heavy-mineral sands in ancient and modern coastal plains are a significant feedstock source for the titanium dioxide pigments industry. Currently, two heavy-mineral sands mining and processing operations are active in the southeast United States producing concentrates of ilmenite-leucoxene, rutile, and zircon. The results of this study indicate the potential for similar deposits in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

This study used the titanium analyses of 3,457 stream sediment samples that were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Geochemical Survey program. This data set was analyzed by an integrated spatial modeling technique known as Bayesian hierarchical modeling to map the regional-scale, spatial distribution of titanium concentrations. In particular, clusters of anomalous concentrations of titanium occur: (1) along the Fall Zone, from Virginia to Alabama, where metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Piedmont region contact younger sediments of the Coastal Plain; (2) a paleovalley near the South Carolina and North Carolina border; (3) the upper and middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina; (4) the majority of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia; and (5) barrier islands and stretches of the modern shoreline from South Carolina to northeast Florida. The areas mapped by this study could help mining companies delimit areas for exploration.

Landscape connectivity for bobcat (Lynx rufus) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the Northeastern United States

Released April 16, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, PLoS ONE (13) 1-25

Laura E. Farrell, Daniel M. Levy, Therese Donovan, Ruth M. Mickey, Alan Howard, Jennifer Vashon, Mark Freeman, Kim Royar, C. William Kilpatrick

Landscape connectivity is integral to the persistence of metapopulations of wide ranging carnivores and other terrestrial species. The objectives of this research were to investigate the landscape characteristics essential to use of areas by lynx and bobcats in northern New England, map a habitat availability model for each species, and explore connectivity across areas of the region likely to experience future development pressure. A Mahalanobis distance analysis was conducted on location data collected between 2005 and 2010 from 16 bobcats in western Vermont and 31 lynx in northern Maine to determine which variables were most consistent across all locations for each species using three scales based on average 1) local (15 minute) movement, 2) linear distance between daily locations, and 3) female home range size. The bobcat model providing the widest separation between used locations and random study area locations suggests that they cue into landscape features such as edge, availability of cover, and development density at different scales. The lynx model with the widest separation between random and used locations contained five variables including natural habitat, cover, and elevation—all at different scales. Shrub scrub habitat—where lynx’s preferred prey is most abundant—was represented at the daily distance moved scale. Cross validation indicated that outliers had little effect on models for either species. A habitat suitability value was calculated for each 30 m2 pixel across Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine for each species and used to map connectivity between conserved lands within selected areas across the region. Projections of future landscape change illustrated potential impacts of anthropogenic development on areas lynx and bobcat may use, and indicated where connectivity for bobcats and lynx may be lost. These projections provided a guide for conservation of landscape permeability for lynx, bobcat, and species relying on similar habitats in the region.

Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) habitat selection as a function of land use and terrain, San Diego County, California

Released April 16, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1067

Jeff A. Tracey, Melanie C. Madden, Peter H. Bloom, Todd E. Katzner, Robert N. Fisher

Beginning in 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with Bloom Biological, Inc., began telemetry research on golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in the San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties of southern California. This work was supported by the San Diego Association of Governments, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 2014, we have tracked more than 40 eagles, although this report focuses only on San Diego County eagles.

An important objective of this research is to develop habitat selection models for golden eagles. Here we provide predictions of population-level habitat selection for golden eagles in San Diego County based on environmental covariates related to land use and terrain.

The influence of episodic shallow magma degassing on heat and chemical transport in volcanic hydrothermal systems

Released April 16, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Geophysical Research Letters

Kewei Chen, Hongbin Zhan, Erick Burns, Steven E. Ingebritsen, Pierre Agrinier

Springs at La Soufrière of Guadeloupe have been monitored for nearly four decades since the phreatic eruption and associated seismic activity in 1976. We conceptualize degassing vapor/gas mixtures as square‐wave sources of chloride and heat and apply a new semianalytic solution to demonstrate that chloride and heat pulses with the same timing and duration result in good matches between measured and simulated spring temperatures and concentrations. While the concentration of chloride pulses is variable, the local boiling temperature of 96°C was assigned to all thermal pulses. Because chloride is a conservative tracer, chloride breakthrough is only affected by one‐dimensional advection and dispersion. The thermal tracer is damped and lagged relative to chloride due to conductive heat exchange with the overlying and underlying strata. Joint analysis of temperature and chloride allows estimation of the onset and duration of degassing pulses, refining the chronology of recent magmatic intrusion.

Science partnership between U.S. Geological Survey and the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe—Understanding the Elwha River Dam Removal Project

Released April 16, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Fact Sheet 2018-3025

Jeffrey J. Duda, Matt M. Beirne, Jonathan A. Warrick, Christopher S. Magirl

After nearly a century of producing power, two large hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State were removed during 2011 to 2014 to restore the river ecosystem and recover imperiled salmon populations. Roughly two-thirds of the 21 million cubic meters of sediment—enough to fill nearly 2 million dump trucks—contained behind the dams was released downstream, which restored natural processes and initiated important changes to the river, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. A multidisciplinary team of scientists from the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, academia, non-governmental organizations, Federal and state agencies, and the U.S. Geological Survey collected key data before, during, and after dam removal to understand the outcomes of this historic project on the Elwha River ecosystem.

Evaluating the potential for near-shore bathymetry on the Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, using Landsat 8 and WorldView-3 imagery

Released April 16, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5024

Sandra K. Poppenga, Monica Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Dean B. Gesch, Jeffrey J. Danielson, Dean J. Tyler

Satellite-derived near-shore bathymetry (SDB) is becoming an increasingly important method for assessing vulnerability to climate change and natural hazards in low-lying atolls of the northern tropical Pacific Ocean. Satellite imagery has become a cost-effective means for mapping near-shore bathymetry because ships cannot collect soundings safely while operating close to the shore. Also, green laser light detection and ranging (lidar) acquisitions are expensive in remote locations. Previous research has demonstrated that spectral band ratio-based techniques, commonly called the natural logarithm approach, may lead to more precise measurements and modeling of bathymetry because of the phenomenon that different substrates at the same depth have approximately equal ratio values. The goal of this research was to apply the band ratio technique to Landsat 8 at-sensor radiance imagery and WorldView-3 atmospherically corrected imagery in the coastal waters surrounding the Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, to derive near-shore bathymetry that could be incorporated into a seamless topobathymetric digital elevation model of Majuro. Attenuation of light within the water column was characterized by measuring at-sensor radiance and reflectance at different depths and calculating an attenuation coefficient. Bathymetric lidar data, collected by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office in 2006, were used to calibrate the SDB results. The bathymetric lidar yielded a strong linear relation with water depths. The Landsat 8-derived SDB estimates derived from the blue/green band ratio exhibited a water attenuation extinction depth of 6 meters with a coefficient of determination R2=0.9324. Estimates derived from the coastal/red band ratio had an R2=0.9597. At the same extinction depth, SDB estimates derived from WorldView-3 imagery exhibited an R2=0.9574. Because highly dynamic coastal shorelines can be affected by erosion, wetland loss, hurricanes, sea-level rise, urban development, and population growth, consistent bathymetric data are needed to better understand sensitive coastal land/water interfaces in areas subject to coastal disasters.

The Midwest Stream Quality Assessment—Influences of human activities on streams

Released April 16, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Fact Sheet 2017-3087

Peter C. Van Metre, Barbara J. Mahler, Daren M. Carlisle, James F. Coles

Healthy streams and the fish and other organisms that live in them contribute to our quality of life. Extensive modification of the landscape in the Midwestern United States, however, has profoundly affected the condition of streams. Row crops and pavement have replaced grasslands and woodlands, streams have been straightened, and wetlands and fields have been drained. Runoff from agricultural and urban land brings sediment and chemicals to streams. What is the chemical, physical, and biological condition of Midwestern streams? Which physical and chemical stressors are adversely affecting biological communities, what are their origins, and how might we lessen or avoid their adverse effects?

In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment to evaluate how human activities affect the biological condition of Midwestern streams. In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Rivers and Streams Assessment, the USGS sampled 100 streams, chosen to be representative of the different types of watersheds in the region. Biological condition was evaluated based on the number and diversity of fish, algae, and invertebrates in the streams. Changes to the physical habitat and chemical characteristics of the streams—“stressors”—were assessed, and their relation to landscape factors and biological condition was explored by using mathematical models. The data and models help us to better understand how the human activities on the landscape are affecting streams in the region.

Assessment of continuous gas resources in the Phosphoria Formation of the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah, 2017

Released April 13, 2018 18:05 EST

2018, Fact Sheet 2018-3001

Christopher J. Schenk, Tracey J. Mercier, Marilyn E. Tennyson, Cheryl A. Woodall, Thomas M. Finn, Janet K. Pitman, Stephanie B. Gaswirth, Kristen R. Marra, Phuong A. Le, Timothy R. Klett, Heidi M. Leathers-Miller

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 198 billion cubic feet of continuous gas in the Phosphoria Formation of the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah.

Nearshore coastal bathymetry data collected in 2016 from West Ship Island to Horn Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

Released April 13, 2018 15:00 EST

2018, Data Series 1081

Nancy T. DeWitt, Chelsea A. Stalk, Jake J. Fredericks, James G. Flocks, Kyle W. Kelso, Andrew S. Farmer, Thomas M. Tuten, Noreen A. Buster

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, conducted bathymetric surveys of the nearshore waters surrounding Ship and Horn Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi. The objective of this study was to establish base-level elevation conditions around West Ship, East Ship, and Horn Islands and their associated active littoral system prior to restoration activities. These activities include the closure of Camille Cut and the placement of sediment in the littoral zone of East Ship Island. These surveys can be compared with future surveys to monitor sediment migration patterns post-restoration and can also be measured against historic bathymetric datasets to further our understanding of island evolution.

The USGS collected 667 line-kilometers (km) of single-beam bathymetry data and 844 line-km of interferometric swath bathymetry data in July 2016 under Field Activity Number 2016-347-FA. Data are provided in three datums: (1) the International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 (ellipsoid height); (2) the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) CORS96 realization and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 with respect to the GEOID12B model (orthometric height); and (3) NAD83 (CORS96) and Mean Lower Low Water (tidal datum). Data products, including x,y,zpoint datasets, trackline shapefiles, digital and handwritten Field Activity Collection Systems logs, 50-meter digital elevation model, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata, are available for download.

Measuring impact crater depth throughout the solar system

Released April 13, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Meteoritics and Planetary Science (53) 583-637

Stuart J. Robbins, Wesley A. Watters, John E. Chappelow, Veronica J. Bray, Ingrid J. Daubar, Robert A. Craddock, Ross A. Beyer, Margaret E. Landis, Lillian Ostrach, Livio L. Tornabene, Jamie D. Riggs, Brian P. Weaver

One important, almost ubiquitous, tool for understanding the surfaces of solid bodies throughout the solar system is the study of impact craters. While measuring a distribution of crater diameters and locations is an important tool for a wide variety of studies, so too is measuring a crater's “depth.” Depth can inform numerous studies including the strength of a surface and modification rates in the local environment. There is, however, no standard data set, definition, or technique to perform this data‐gathering task, and the abundance of different definitions of “depth” and methods for estimating that quantity can lead to misunderstandings in and of the literature. In this review, we describe a wide variety of data sets and methods to analyze those data sets that have been, are currently, or could be used to derive different types of crater depth measurements. We also recommend certain nomenclature in doing so to help standardize practice in the field. We present a review section of all crater depths that have been published on different solar system bodies which shows how the field has evolved through time and how some common assumptions might not be wholly accurate. We conclude with several recommendations for researchers which could help different data sets to be more easily understood and compared.

Climate stability in Central Anatolia during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

Released April 13, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (498) 53-67

Maud J.M. Meijers, Ahmet A Peynircioğlu, Michael A. Cosca, Gilles Y. Brocard, Donna L. Whitney, Cor G. Langereis, Andreas Mulch

Deposition of large amounts of evaporites and erosion of deep canyons within the Mediterranean Basin as a result of reduced basin connectivity with the Atlantic Ocean and the epicontinental Paratethys Sea characterized the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97–5.33 Ma). The influence of the MSC on Mediterranean environmental conditions within the basin itself has been intensely studied from marine records, but reconstructing the impact of the MSC on circum-Mediterranean continental climate has been hampered by the absence of continuous sedimentary archives that span the duration of the event.

Here, we report results of a continental record of carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes from lake carbonates framed by new magnetostratigraphic and 40Ar/39Ar dating, as well as by existing mammal stratigraphy (Kangal Basin, central Anatolia). The sampled section records continuous fluvio-lacustrine sedimentation from ~6.6 Ma to 4.9 Ma, which spans the MSC and the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. This dataset so far represents the only continuous continental paleoenvironmental record of the MSC in the circum-Mediterranean realm.

The Kangal Basin isotope record indicates a low degree of evaporation. Furthermore, covariance between δ13C and δ18O suggests a coupling between lake water balance and biologic productivity. Variations in δ13C and δ18O therefore likely reflect changes in the amount of incoming precipitation, rather than changes in δ18O values of incoming precipitation. The most prominent spike in δ13C and δ18O occurs during the acme of the MSC and is therefore interpreted to have resulted from a decrease in the amount of incoming moisture correlative to a period of vigorous erosion and sea level lowering in the Mediterranean Basin. Major sea level lowering of Mediterranean basin waters during the acme of the MSC could have therefore led to slightly dryer conditions over Anatolia, which is also suggested by modeling studies. Overall, changes in δ13C and δ18O values are small. Therefore, we surmise that the MSC had limited effects on the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions in the Anatolian interior.

Spectrally based bathymetric mapping of a dynamic, sand‐bedded channel: Niobrara River, Nebraska, USA

Released April 13, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, River Research and Applications

Elizabeth Dilbone, Carl Legleiter, Jason S. Alexander, Brandon McElroy

Methods for spectrally based mapping of river bathymetry have been developed and tested in clear‐flowing, gravel‐bed channels, with limited application to turbid, sand‐bed rivers. This study used hyperspectral images and field surveys from the dynamic, sandy Niobrara River to evaluate three depth retrieval methods. The first regression‐based approach, optimal band ratio analysis (OBRA), paired in situ depth measurements with image pixel values to estimate depth. The second approach used ground‐based field spectra to calibrate an OBRA relationship. The third technique, image‐to‐depth quantile transformation (IDQT), estimated depth by linking the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of depth to the CDF of an image‐derived variable. OBRA yielded the lowest depth retrieval mean error (0.005 m) and highest observed versus predicted R2 (0.817). Although misalignment between field and image data did not compromise the performance of OBRA in this study, poor georeferencing could limit regression‐based approaches such as OBRA in dynamic, sand‐bedded rivers. Field spectroscopy‐based depth maps exhibited a mean error with a slight shallow bias (0.068 m) but provided reliable estimates for most of the study reach. IDQT had a strong deep bias but provided informative relative depth maps. Overprediction of depth by IDQT highlights the need for an unbiased sampling strategy to define the depth CDF. Although each of the techniques we tested demonstrated potential to provide accurate depth estimates in sand‐bed rivers, each method also was subject to certain constraints and limitations.

High costs of infection: Alphavirus infection reduces digestive function and bone and feather growth in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

Released April 13, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, PLoS ONE (13) 1-20

Carol A. Fassbinder-Orth, Tess L. Killpack, Dylan S. Goto, Ellecia L. Rainwater, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler

Increasingly, ecoimmunology studies aim to use relevant pathogen exposure to examine the impacts of infection on physiological processes in wild animals. Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses (“arboviruses”) responsible for millions of cases of human illnesses each year. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is a unique alphavirus that is transmitted by a cimicid insect, the swallow bug, and is amplified in two avian species: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). BCRV, like many alphaviruses, exhibits age-dependent susceptibility where the young are most susceptible to developing disease and exhibit a high mortality rate. However, alphavirus disease etiology in nestling birds is unknown. In this study, we infected nestling house sparrows with Buggy Creek virus and measured virological, pathological, growth, and digestive parameters following infection. Buggy Creek virus caused severe encephalitis in all infected nestlings, and the peak viral concentration in brain tissue was over 34 times greater than any other tissue. Growth, tissue development, and digestive function were all significantly impaired during BCRV infection. However, based on histopathological analysis performed, this impairment does not appear to be the result of direct tissue damage by the virus, but likely caused by encephalitis and neuronal invasion and impairment of the central nervous system. This is the first study to examine the course of alphavirus diseases in nestling birds and these results will improve our understanding of age-dependent infections of alphaviruses in vertebrate hosts.

Potential impacts of projected climate change on vegetation management in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park

Released April 13, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Park Science (34) 22-31

Richard J. Camp, Rhonda Loh, S. Paul Berkowitz, Kevin W. Brinck, James D. Jacobi, Jonathan Price, Sierra McDaniel, Lucas B. Fortini

Climate change will likely alter the seasonal and annual patterns of rainfall and temperature in Hawai`i. This is a major concern for resource managers at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park where intensely managed Special Ecological Areas (SEAs), focal sites for managing rare and endangered plants, may no longer provide suitable habitat under future climate. Expanding invasive species’ distributions also may pose a threat to areas where native plants currently predominate. We combine recent climate modeling efforts for the state of Hawai`i with plant species distribution models to forecast changes in biodiversity in SEAs under future climate conditions. Based on this bioclimatic envelope model, we generated projected species range maps for four snapshots in time (2000, 2040, 2070, and 2090) to assess whether the range of 39 native and invasive species of management interest are expected to contract, expand, or remain the same under a moderately warmer and more variable precipitation scenario. Approximately two-thirds of the modeled native species were projected to contract in range, while one-third were shown to increase. Most of the park’s SEAs were projected to lose a majority of the native species modeled. Nine of the 10 modeled invasive species were projected to contract within the park; this trend occurred in most SEAs, including those at low, middle, and high elevations. There was good congruence in the current (2000) distribution of species richness and SEA configuration; however, the congruence between species richness hotspots and SEAs diminished by the end of this century. Over time the projected species-rich hotspots increasingly occurred outside of current SEA boundaries. Our research brought together managers and scientists to increase understanding of potential climate change impacts, and provide needed information to address how plants may respond under future conditions relative to current managed areas.

Flight response to spatial and temporal correlates informs risk from wind turbines to the California Condor

Released April 13, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, The Condor (120) 330-342

Sharon Poessel, Joseph Brandt, Laura C. Mendenhall, Melissa A. Braham, Michael J. Lanzone, Andrew J. McGann, Todd Katzner

Wind power is a fast-growing energy resource, but wind turbines can kill volant wildlife, and the flight behavior of obligate soaring birds can place them at risk of collision with these structures. We analyzed altitudinal data from GPS telemetry of critically endangered California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) to assess the circumstances under which their flight behavior may place them at risk from collision with wind turbines. Condor flight behavior was strongly influenced by topography and land cover, and birds flew at lower altitudes and closer to the rotor-swept zone of wind turbines when over ridgelines and steep slopes and over forested and grassland cover types. Condor flight behavior was temporally predictable, and birds flew lower and closer to the rotor-swept zone during early morning and evening hours and during the winter months, when thermal updrafts were weakest. Although condors only occasionally flew at altitudes that placed them in the rotor-swept zone of turbines, they regularly flew near or within wind resource areas preferred by energy developers. Practitioners aiming to mitigate collision risk to this and other soaring bird species of conservation concern can consider the manner in which flight behavior varies temporally and in response to areas of high topographic relief and proximity to nocturnal roosting sites. By contrast, collision risk to large soaring birds from turbines should be relatively lower over flatter and less rugged areas and in habitat used during daytime soaring.

New insights into the phylogenetics and population structure of the prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus)

Released April 13, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, BMC Genomics (19) 1-14

Jacqueline M. Doyle, Douglas A. Bell, Peter H. Bloom, Gavin Emmons, Amy Fesnock, Todd Katzner, Larry LePre, Kolbe Leonard, Phillip SanMiguel, Rick Westerman, J. Andrew DeWoody

Background

Management requires a robust understanding of between- and within-species genetic variability, however such data are still lacking in many species. For example, although multiple population genetics studies of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) have been conducted, no similar studies have been done of the closely-related prairie falcon (F. mexicanus) and it is unclear how much genetic variation and population structure exists across the species’ range. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship of F. mexicanus relative to other falcon species is contested. We utilized a genomics approach (i.e., genome sequencing and assembly followed by single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping) to rapidly address these gaps in knowledge.

Results

We sequenced the genome of a single female prairie falcon and generated a 1.17 Gb (gigabases) draft genome assembly. We generated maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees using complete mitochondrial genomes as well as nuclear protein-coding genes. This process provided evidence that F. mexicanus is an outgroup to the clade that includes the peregrine falcon and members of the subgenus Hierofalco. We annotated > 16,000 genes and almost 600,000 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nuclear genome, providing the raw material for a SNP assay design featuring > 140 gene-associated markers and a molecular-sexing marker. We subsequently genotyped ~ 100 individuals from California (including the San Francisco East Bay Area, Pinnacles National Park and the Mojave Desert) and Idaho (Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area). We tested for population structure and found evidence that individuals sampled in California and Idaho represent a single panmictic population.

Conclusions

Our study illustrates how genomic resources can rapidly shed light on genetic variability in understudied species and resolve phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, we found evidence of a single, randomly mating population of prairie falcons across our sampling locations. Prairie falcons are highly mobile and relatively rare long-distance dispersal events may promote gene flow throughout the range. As such, California’s prairie falcons might be managed as a single population, indicating that management actions undertaken to benefit the species at the local level have the potential to influence the species as a whole.

Effects of climate change on forest vegetation in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 6]

Released April 13, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-374

Robert E. Keane, Mary Frances Mahalovich, Barry L. Bollenbacher, Mary E. Manning, Rachel A. Loehman, Terrie B. Jain, Lisa M. Holsinger, Andrew J. Larson, Meredith M. Webster

The projected rapid changes in climate will affect the unique vegetation assemblages of the Northern Rockies region in myriad ways, both directly through shifts in vegetation growth, mortality, and regeneration, and indirectly through changes in disturbance regimes and interactions with changes in other ecosystem processes, such as hydrology, snow dynamics, and exotic invasions (Bonan 2008; Hansen and Phillips 2015; Hansen et al. 2001; Notaro et al. 2007). These impacts, taken collectively, could change the way vegetation is managed by public land agencies in this area. Some species may be in danger of rapid decreases in abundance, while others may undergo range expansion (Landhäusser et al. 2010). New vegetation communities may form, while historical vegetation complexes may simply shift to other areas of the landscape or become rare. Juxtaposed with climate change concerns are the consequences of other land management policies and past activities, such as fire exclusion, fuels treatments, and grazing. A thorough assessment of the responses of vegetation to projected climate change is needed, along with an evaluation of the vulnerability of important species, communities, and vegetation-related resources that may be influenced by the effects, both direct and indirect, of climate change. This assessment must also account for past management actions and current vegetation conditions and their interactions with future climates.

Effects of climate change on ecological disturbance in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 8]

Released April 13, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-374

Rachel A. Loehman, Barbara J. Bentz, Gregg A. DeNitto, Robert E. Keane, Mary E. Manning, Jacob P. Duncan, Joel M. Egan, Marcus B. Jackson, Sandra Kegley, I. Blakey Lockman, Dean E. Pearson, James A. Powell, Steve Shelly, Brytten E. Steed, Paul J. Zambino

This chapter describes the ecology of important disturbance regimes in the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area, hereafter called the Northern Rockies region, and potential shifts in these regimes as a consequence of observed and projected climate change. The term disturbance regime describes the general temporal and spatial characteristics of a disturbance agent - insect, disease, fire, weather, even human activity - and the effects of that agent on the landscape (table 8.1). More specifically, a disturbance regime is the cumulative effect of multiple disturbance events over space and time (Keane 2013). Disturbances disrupt an ecosystem, community, or population structure and change elements of the biological environment, physical environment, or both (White and Pickett 1985). The resulting shifting mosaic of diverse ecological patterns and structures in turn affects future patterns of disturbance, in a reciprocal, linked relationship that shapes the fundamental character of landscapes and ecosystems. Disturbance creates and maintains biological diversity in the form of shifting, heterogeneous mosaics of diverse communities and habitats across a landscape (McKinney and Drake 1998), and biodiversity is generally highest when disturbance is neither too rare nor too frequent on the landscape (Grime 1973).

The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 2: Controlled floods of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

Released April 13, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Aeolian Research (32) 154-169

Joel B. Sankey, Joshua Caster, Alan Kasprak, Amy East

In the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in the Grand Canyon, USA, controlled floods are used to resupply sediment to, and rebuild, river sandbars that have eroded severely over the past five decades owing to dam-induced changes in river flow and sediment supply. In this study, we examine whether controlled floods, can in turn resupply aeolian sediment to some of the large source-bordering aeolian dunefields (SBDs) along the margins of the river. Using a legacy of high-resolution lidar remote-sensing and meteorological data, we characterize the response of four SBDs (a subset of 117 SBDs and other aeolian-sand-dominated areas in the canyon) during four sediment-laden controlled floods of the Colorado River in 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2016. We find that aeolian sediment resupply unambiguously occurred in 8 of the 16 instances of controlled flooding adjacent to SBDs. Resupply attributed to individual floods varied substantially among sites, and occurred with four, three, one, and zero floods at the four sites, respectively. We infer that the relative success of controlled floods as a regulated-river management tool for resupplying sediment to SBDs is analogous to the frequency of resupply observed for fluvial sandbars in this setting, in that sediment resupply was estimated to have occurred for roughly half of the instances of recent controlled flooding at sandbars monitored separately from this study. We find the methods developed in this, and a companion study, are effective tools to quantify geomorphic changes in sediment storage, along linked fluvial and aeolian pathways of sedimentary systems.

The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

Released April 13, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Aeolian Research (32) 228-245

Joel B. Sankey, Alan Kasprak, Joshua Caster, Amy East, Helen C. Fairley

Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

Department of the Interior metadata implementation guide—Framework for developing the metadata component for data resource management

Released April 12, 2018 15:10 EST

2018, Techniques and Methods 16-A1

Raymond C. Obuch, Jennifer Carlino, Lin Zhang, Jonathan Blythe, Christopher Dietrich, Christine Hawkinson

The Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Federal agency with over 90,000 employees across 10 bureaus and 8 agency offices. Its primary mission is to protect and manage the Nation’s natural resources and cultural heritage; provide scientific and other information about those resources; and honor its trust responsibilities or special commitments to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and affiliated island communities. Data and information are critical in day-to-day operational decision making and scientific research. DOI is committed to creating, documenting, managing, and sharing high-quality data and metadata in and across its various programs that support its mission. Documenting data through metadata is essential in realizing the value of data as an enterprise asset. The completeness, consistency, and timeliness of metadata affect users’ ability to search for and discover the most relevant data for the intended purpose; and facilitates the interoperability and usability of these data among DOI bureaus and offices. Fully documented metadata describe data usability, quality, accuracy, provenance, and meaning.

Across DOI, there are different maturity levels and phases of information and metadata management implementations. The Department has organized a committee consisting of bureau-level points-of-contacts to collaborate on the development of more consistent, standardized, and more effective metadata management practices and guidance to support this shared mission and the information needs of the Department. DOI’s metadata implementation plans establish key roles and responsibilities associated with metadata management processes, procedures, and a series of actions defined in three major metadata implementation phases including: (1) Getting started—Planning Phase, (2) Implementing and Maintaining Operational Metadata Management Phase, and (3) the Next Steps towards Improving Metadata Management Phase. DOI’s phased approach for metadata management addresses some of the major data and metadata management challenges that exist across the diverse missions of the bureaus and offices. All employees who create, modify, or use data are involved with data and metadata management. Identifying, establishing, and formalizing the roles and responsibilities associated with metadata management are key to institutionalizing a framework of best practices, methodologies, processes, and common approaches throughout all levels of the organization; these are the foundation for effective data resource management. For executives and managers, metadata management strengthens their overarching views of data assets, holdings, and data interoperability; and clarifies how metadata management can help accelerate the compliance of multiple policy mandates. For employees, data stewards, and data professionals, formalized metadata management will help with the consistency of definitions, and approaches addressing data discoverability, data quality,  and data lineage. In addition to data professionals and others  associated with information technology; data stewards and program subject matter experts take on important metadata management roles and responsibilities as data flow through their respective business and science-related workflows.  The responsibilities of establishing, practicing, and  governing the actions associated with their specific metadata management roles are critical to successful metadata implementation.

Thermochronometry across the Austroalpine-Pennine boundary, Central Alps, Switzerland: Orogen-perpendicular normal fault slip on a major ‘overthrust’ and its implications for orogenesis

Released April 12, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Tectonics

Jason B. Price, Brian P. Wernicke, Michael A. Cosca, Kenneth A. Farley

Fifty‐one new and 309 published thermochronometric ages (nine systems with closure temperatures ranging from ~450 to 70°C) from the Graubünden region of the Central Alps demonstrate that a pronounced thermal mismatch between the Austroalpine allochthon (Alpine “orogenic lid”) and the Pennine zone persisted until at least 29 Ma and, allowably, until circa 18 Ma. The observed mismatch supports previous suggestions that the famous “overthrust” between the Austroalpine allochthon and the Pennine zone, historically regarded as primarily an Eocene top‐north thrust fault, is in fact primarily an Oligocene‐Miocene normal fault that has a minimum of 60 km of displacement with top‐south or top‐southeast sense of shear. Two hallmarks of Alpine geology, deposition of the foredeep Molasse and emplacement of the Helvetic nappes, appear to be coeval, peripheral manifestations of crustal thickening via the interposition of the Pennine zone as a northward intruding wedge between the Austroalpine “lid” and the European cratonic margin, with the Helvetic system (European margin) acting as the “floor” of the wedge. We presume the Penninic wedge is driven by the buoyant rise of subducted crust no longer able to remain attached to the descending slab. If so, emplacement of the Pennine wedge could have occurred mainly after Adria was juxtaposed against cratonic Europe.

Advancing dendrochronological studies of fire in the United States

Released April 12, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Fire (1) 1-6

Grant L. Harley, Christopher H. Baisan, Peter M. Brown, Donald A. Falk, William T. Flatley, Henri D. Grissino-Mayer, Amy Hessl, Emily K. Heyerdahl, Margot W. Kaye, Charles W. Lafon, Ellis Margolis, R. Stockton Maxwell, Adam T. Naito, William J. Platt, Monica T. Rother, Thomas Saladyga, Rosemary L. Sherriff, Lauren A. Stachowiak, Michael C. Stambaugh, Elaine Kennedy Sutherland, Alan H. Taylor

Dendroecology is the science that dates tree rings to their exact calendar year of formation to study processes that influence forest ecology (e.g., Speer 2010, Amoroso et al., 2017). Reconstruction of past fire regimes is a core application of dendroecology, linking fire history to population dynamics and climate effects on tree growth and survivorship. Since the early 20th century when dendrochronologists recognized that tree rings retained fire scars (e.g., Figure 1), and hence a record of past fires, they have conducted studies worldwide to reconstruct the historical range and variability of fire regimes (e.g., frequency, severity, seasonality, spatial extent), the influence of fire regimes on forest structure and ecosystem dynamics, and the top-down (e.g., climate) and bottom-up (e.g., fuels, topography) drivers of fire that operate at a range of temporal and spatial scales. As in other scientific fields, continued application of dendrochronological techniques to study fires has shaped new trajectories for the science. Here we highlight some important current directions in the United States (US) and call on our international colleagues to continue the conversation with perspectives from other countries.

A remote sensing-based model of tidal marsh aboveground carbon stocks for the conterminous United States

Released April 12, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (139) 255-271

Kristin B. Byrd, Laurel Ballanti, Nathan Thomas, Dung Nguyen, James R. Holmquist, Marc Simard, Lisamarie Windham-Myers

Remote sensing based maps of tidal marshes, both of their extents and carbon stocks, have the potential to play a key role in conducting greenhouse gas inventories and implementing climate mitigation policies. Our objective was to generate a single remote sensing model of tidal marsh aboveground biomass and carbon that represents nationally diverse tidal marshes within the conterminous United States (CONUS). We developed the first calibration-grade, national-scale dataset of aboveground tidal marsh biomass, species composition, and aboveground plant carbon content (%C) from six CONUS regions: Cape Cod, MA, Chesapeake Bay, MD, Everglades, FL, Mississippi Delta, LA, San Francisco Bay, CA, and Puget Sound, WA. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we tested whether imagery from multiple sensors, Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic aperture radar, Landsat, and the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP), can improve model performance. The final model, driven by six Landsat vegetation indices and with the soil adjusted vegetation index as the most important (n = 409, RMSE = 310 g/m2, 10.3% normalized RMSE), successfully predicted biomass for a range of marsh plant functional types defined by height, leaf angle and growth form. Model results were improved by scaling field-measured biomass calibration data by NAIP-derived 30 m fraction green vegetation. With a mean plant carbon content of 44.1% (n = 1384, 95% C.I. = 43.99%–44.37%), we generated regional 30 m aboveground carbon density maps for estuarine and palustrine emergent tidal marshes as indicated by a modified NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program map. We applied a multivariate delta method to calculate uncertainties in regional carbon densities and stocks that considered standard error in map area, mean biomass and mean %C. Louisiana palustrine emergent marshes had the highest C density (2.67 ± 0.004 Mg/ha) of all regions, while San Francisco Bay brackish/saline marshes had the highest C density of all estuarine emergent marshes (2.03 ± 0.004 Mg/ha). Estimated C stocks for predefined jurisdictional areas ranged from 1023 ± 39 Mg in the Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge in Washington to 507,761 ± 14,822 Mg in the Terrebonne and St. Mary Parishes in Louisiana. This modeling and data synthesis effort will allow for aboveground C stocks in tidal marshes to be included in the coastal wetland section of the U.S. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. With the increased availability of free post-processed satellite data, we provide a tractable means of modeling tidal marsh aboveground biomass and carbon at the global extent as well.

Geologic map of the upper Arkansas River valley region, north-central Colorado

Released April 11, 2018 14:00 EST

2017, Scientific Investigations Map 3382

Karl S. Kellogg, Ralph R. Shroba, Chester A. Ruleman, Robert G. Bohannon, William C. McIntosh, Wayne R. Premo, Michael A. Cosca, Richard J. Moscati, Theodore R. Brandt

This 1:50,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey geologic map represents a compilation of the most recent geologic studies of the upper Arkansas River valley between Leadville and Salida, Colorado. The valley is structurally controlled by an extensional fault system that forms part of the prominent northern Rio Grande rift, an intra-continental region of crustal extension. This report also incorporates new detailed geologic mapping of previously poorly understood areas within the map area and reinterprets previously studied areas. The mapped region extends into the Proterozoic metamorphic and intrusive rocks in the Sawatch Range west of the valley and the Mosquito Range to the east. Paleozoic rocks are preserved along the crest of the Mosquito Range, but most of them have been eroded from the Sawatch Range. Numerous new isotopic ages better constrain the timing of both Proterozoic intrusive events, Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary intrusive events, and Eocene and Miocene volcanic episodes, including widespread ignimbrite eruptions. The uranium-lead ages document extensive about 1,440-million years (Ma) granitic plutonism mostly north of Buena Vista that produced batholiths that intruded an older suite of about 1,760-Ma metamorphic rocks and about 1,700-Ma plutonic rocks. As a result of extension during the Neogene and possibly latest Paleogene, the graben underlying the valley is filled with thick basin-fill deposits (Dry Union Formation and older sediments), which occupy two sub-basins separated by a bedrock high near the town of Granite. The Dry Union Formation has undergone deep erosion since the late Miocene or early Pliocene. During the Pleistocene, ongoing steam incision by the Arkansas River and its major tributaries has been interrupted by periodic aggradation. From Leadville south to Salida as many as seven mapped alluvial depositional units, which range in age from early to late Pleistocene, record periodic aggradational events along these streams that are commonly associated with deposition of glacial outwash or bouldery glacial-flood deposits. Many previously unrecognized Neogene and Quaternary faults, some of the latter with possible Holocene displacement, have been identified on lidar (light detection and ranging) imagery which covers 59 percent of the map area. This imagery has also permitted more accurate remapping of glacial, fluvial, and mass-movement deposits and aided in the determination of their relative ages. Recently published 10beryllium cosmogenic surface-exposure ages, coupled with our new geologic mapping, have revealed the timing and rates of late Pleistocene deglaciation. Glacial dams that impounded the Arkansas River at Clear Creek and possibly at Pine Creek failed at least three times during the middle and late Pleistocene, resulting in catastrophic floods and deposition of enormous boulders and bouldery alluvium downstream; at least two failures occurred during the late Pleistocene during the Pinedale glaciation.

Toward a social-ecological theory of forest macrosystems for improved ecosystem management

Released April 11, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Forests (9) 1-23

William J. Kleindl, Paul C. Stoy, Michael W. Binford, Ankur R. Desai, Michael C. Dietze, Courtney A. Schultz, Gregory Starr, Christina Staudhammer, David J. A. Wood

The implications of cumulative land-use decisions and shifting climate on forests, require us to integrate our understanding of ecosystems, markets, policy, and resource management into a social-ecological system. Humans play a central role in macrosystem dynamics, which complicates ecological theories that do not explicitly include human interactions. These dynamics also impact ecological services and related markets, which challenges economic theory. Here, we use two forest macroscale management initiatives to develop a theoretical understanding of how management interacts with ecological functions and services at these scales and how the multiple large-scale management goals work either in consort or conflict with other forest functions and services. We suggest that calling upon theories developed for organismal ecology, ecosystem ecology, and ecological economics adds to our understanding of social-ecological macrosystems. To initiate progress, we propose future research questions to add rigor to macrosystem-scale studies: (1) What are the ecosystem functions that operate at macroscales, their necessary structural components, and how do we observe them? (2) How do systems at one scale respond if altered at another scale? (3) How do we both effectively measure these components and interactions, and communicate that information in a meaningful manner for policy and management across different scales?

Modeled de facto reuse and contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water source waters

Released April 11, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal - American Water Works Association (110) E2-E18

Thuy Nguyen, Paul Westerhoff, Edward T. Furlong, Dana W. Kolpin, Angela L. Batt, Heath E. Mash, Kathleen M. Schenck, J. Scott Boone, Jacelyn Rice, Susan T. Glassmeyer

De facto reuse is the percentage of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) intake potentially composed of effluent discharged from upstream wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Results from grab samples and a De Facto Reuse in our Nation's Consumable Supply (DRINCS) geospatial watershed model were used to quantify contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) concentrations at DWTP intakes to qualitatively compare exposure risks obtained by the two approaches. Between nine and 71 CECs were detected in grab samples. The number of upstream WWTP discharges ranged from 0 to >1,000; comparative de facto reuse results from DRINCS ranged from <0.1 to 13% during average flow and >80% during lower streamflows. Correlation between chemicals detected and DRINCS modeling results were observed, particularly DWTPs withdrawing from midsize water bodies. This comparison advances the utility of DRINCS to identify locations of DWTPs for future CEC sampling and treatment technology testing.

Experimental investigation of the role of rock fabric in gas generation and expulsion during thermal maturation: Anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis of a bitumen-rich Eagle Ford Shale

Released April 11, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Organic Geochemistry (119) 22-35

Deyong Shao, Geoffrey S. Ellis, Yanfang Li, Tongwei Zhang

Gold-tube pyrolysis experiments were conducted on miniature core plugs and powdered rock from a bitumen-rich sample of Eagle Ford Shale to investigate the role of rock fabric in gas generation and expulsion during thermal maturation. The samples were isothermally heated at 130, 300, 310, 333, 367, 400, and 425 °C for 72 h under a confining pressure of 68.0 MPa, corresponding to six levels of induced thermal maturity: pre-oil generation (130 °C/72 h), incipient oil/bitumen generation (300 and 310 °C/72 h), early oil generation (333 °C/72 h), peak oil generation (367 °C/72 h), early oil cracking (400 °C/72 h), and late oil cracking (425 °C/72 h). Experimental results show that gas retention coupled with compositional fractionation occurs in the core plug experiments and varies as a function of thermal maturity. During the incipient oil/bitumen generation stage, yields of methane through pentane (C1–C5) from core plugs are significantly lower than those from rock powder, and gases from core plugs are enriched in methane. However, the differences in C1–C5 gas yield and composition decrease throughout the oil generation stage, and by the oil cracking stage no obvious compositional difference in C1–C5 gases exists. The decrease in the effect of rock fabric on gas yield and composition with increasing maturity is the result of an increase in gas expulsion efficiency. Pyrolysis of rock powder yields 4–16 times more CO2 compared to miniature core plugs, with δ13CCO2 values ranging from −2.9‰ to −0.6‰, likely due to carbonate decomposition accelerated by reactions with organic acids. Furthermore, lower yields of gaseous alkenes and H2 from core plug experiments sugge

Evolution of sulfur speciation in bitumen through hydrous pyrolysis induced thermal maturation of Jordanian Ghareb Formation oil shale

Released April 11, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Fuel (219) 214-222

Justin E. Birdwell, Michael Lewan, Kyle D. Bake, Trudy B. Bolin, Paul R. Craddock, Julia C. Forsythe, Andrew E. Pomerantz

Previous studies on the distribution of bulk sulfur species in bitumen before and after artificial thermal maturation using various pyrolysis methods have indicated that the quantities of reactive (sulfide, sulfoxide) and thermally stable (thiophene) sulfur moieties change following consistent trends under increasing thermal stress. These trends show that sulfur distributions change during maturation in ways that are similar to those of carbon, most clearly illustrated by the increase in aromatic sulfur (thiophenic) as a function of thermal maturity. In this study, we have examined the sulfur moiety distributions of retained bitumen from a set of pre- and post-pyrolysis rock samples in an organic sulfur-rich, calcareous oil shale from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation. Samples collected from outcrop in Jordan were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis (HP). Sulfur speciation in extracted bitumens was examined using K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The most substantial changes in sulfur distribution occurred at temperatures up to the point of maximum bitumen generation (∼300 °C) as determined from comparison of the total organic carbon content for samples before and after extraction. Organic sulfide in bitumen decreased with increasing temperature at relatively low thermal stress (200–300 °C) and was not detected in extracts from rocks subjected to HP at temperatures above around 300 °C. Sulfoxide content increased between 200 and 280 °C, but decreased at higher temperatures. The concentration of thiophenic sulfur increased up to 300 °C, and remained essentially stable under increasing thermal stress (mg-S/g-bitumen basis). The ratio of stable-to-reactive+stable sulfur moieties ([thiophene/(sulfide+sulfoxide+thiophene)], T/SST) followed a sigmoidal trend with HP temperature, increasing slightly up to 240 °C, followed by a substantial increase between 240 and 320 °C, and approaching a constant value (∼0.95) at temperatures above 320 °C. This sulfur moiety ratio appears to provide complementary thermal maturity information to geochemical parameters derived from other analyses of extracted source rocks.

Non-native fishes of the central Indian River Lagoon

Released April 11, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Florida Scientist (219) 214-222

Pamela J. Schofield, William F. Loftus, Kristen M. Reaver

We provide a comprehensive review of the status of non-native fishes in the central Indian River Lagoon (from Cape Canaveral to Grant-Valkaria, east of I-95) through literature review and field surveys. Historical records exist for 17 taxa (15 species, one hybrid, one species complex). We found historical records for one additional species, and collected one species in our field survey that had never been recorded in the region before (and which we eradicated). Thus, we evaluate 19 total taxa herein. Of these, we documented range expansion of four salt-tolerant cichlid species, extirpation of six species that were previously recorded from the area and eradication of three species. There was no noticeable change in geographic range for one widespread species and the records for one species are doubtful and may be erroneous. Currently, there is not enough information to evaluate geographic ranges for four species although at least one of those is established.

In situ LA-ICPMS U–Pb dating of cassiterite without a known-age matrix-matched reference material: Examples from worldwide tin deposits spanning the Proterozoic to the Tertiary

Released April 11, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Chemical Geology (483) 410-425

Leonid Neymark, Christopher S. Holm-Denoma, Richard J. Moscati

Cassiterite (SnO2), a main ore mineral in tin deposits, is suitable for U–Pb isotopic dating because of its relatively high U/Pb ratios and typically low common Pb. We report a LA-ICPMS analytical procedure for U–Pb dating of this mineral with no need for an independently dated matrix-matched cassiterite standard. LA-ICPMS U-Th-Pb data were acquired while using NIST 612 glass as a primary non-matrix-matched standard. Raw data are reduced using a combination of Iolite™ and other off-line data reduction methods. Cassiterite is extremely difficult to digest, so traditional approaches in LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology that utilize well-characterized matrix-matched reference materials (e.g., age values determined by ID-TIMS) cannot be easily implemented. We propose a new approach for in situ LA-ICPMS dating of cassiterite, which benefits from the unique chemistry of cassiterite with extremely low Th concentrations (Th/U ratio of 10−4 or lower) in some cassiterite samples. Accordingly, it is assumed that 208Pb measured in cassiterite is mostly of non-radiogenic origin—it was initially incorporated in cassiterite during mineral formation, and can be used as a proxy for common Pb. Using 208Pb as a common Pb proxy instead of 204Pb is preferred as 204Pb is much less abundant and is also compromised by 204Hg interference during the LA-ICPMS analyses.

Our procedure relies on 208Pb/206Pb vs 207Pb/206Pb (Pb-Pb) and Tera-Wasserburg 207Pb/206Pb vs 238U/206Pb (U-Pb) isochron dates that are calculated for a ~1.54 Ga low-Th cassiterite reference material with varying amounts of common Pb that we assume remained a closed U-Pb system. The difference between the NIST 612 glass normalized biased U-Pb date and the Pb-Pb age of the reference material is used to calculate a correction factor (F) for instrumental U-Pb fractionation. The correction factor (F) is then applied to measured U/Pb ratios and Tera-Wasserburg isochron dates are obtained for the unknown cassiterite analyzed in the same analytical session. This allows for U-Pb dating of cassiterite of any age with no need for an independently dated matrix-matched reference material, nor assumptions about the isotopic composition of common Pb.

Results for cassiterite from tin deposits in Bolivia, Brazil, China, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, and the United Kingdom, with ages ranging from ~20 Ma to ~2060 Ma, demonstrate the applicability of this approach across a broad range of geologic time. These ages are in good agreement with published geochronology of the host rocks associated with the tin deposits and with previously published U-Pb ages of some cassiterites from the same deposits. Thus, our in situ LA-ICPMS methodology verifies the use of cassiterite as a reliable U-Pb mineral-geochronometer with the advantages of fast and relatively low cost in situ analyses with moderate spatial resolution.

Faunal and vegetation monitoring in response to harbor dredging in the Port of Miami

Released April 11, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1052

Andre Daniels, Rachael Stevenson, Erin Smith, Michael Robblee

Seagrasses are highly productive ecosystems. A before-after-control-impact (BACI) design was used to examine effects of dredging on seagrasses and the animals that inhabit them. The control site North Biscayne Bay and the affected site Port of Miami had seagrass densities decrease during both the before, Fish and Invertebrate Assessment Network 2006-2011, and after, Faunal Monitoring in Response to Harbor Dredging 2014-2016, studies. Turbidity levels increased at North Biscayne Bay and Port of Miami basins during the Faunal Monitoring in Response to Harbor Dredging study, especially in 2016. Animal populations decreased significantly in North Biscayne Bay and Port of Miami in the Faunal Monitoring in Response to Harbor Dredging study compared to the Fish and Invertebrate Assessment Network study. Predictive modeling shows that numbers of animal populations will likely continue to decrease if the negative trends in seagrass densities continue unabated. There could be effects on several fisheries vital to the south Florida economy. Additional research could determine if animal populations and seagrass densities have rebounded or continued to decrease.

Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

Released April 10, 2018 11:45 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1018

Melissa L. Riskin, David C. Reutter, Jeffrey D. Martin, David K. Mueller

The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

Water resources science of the U.S. Geological Survey in New York

Released April 10, 2018 09:00 EST

2018, General Information Product 185

Anna N. Glover

The U.S. Geological Survey studies the effects of weather, climate, and man-made influences on groundwater levels, streamflow, and reservoir and lake levels, as well as on the ecological health of rivers, lakes, reservoirs, watersheds, estuaries, aquifers, soils, beaches, and wildlife. From these studies, the USGS produces high-quality, timely, and unbiased scientific research and data that are widely accessible and relevant to all levels of government, Tribal Nations, academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and the general public. In New York, the U.S. Geological Survey works with other Federal agencies, State and municipal government, Tribal Nations, and the private sector to develop products that inform decision makers, legislators, and the general public.

Simulating selenium and nitrogen fate and transport in coupled stream-aquifer systems of irrigated regions

Released April 10, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Hydrology (560) 512-529

Christopher D. Shultz, Ryan T. Bailey, Timothy K. Gates, Brent E. Heesemann, Eric D. Morway

Elevated levels of selenium (Se) in aqueous environments can harm aquatic life and endanger livestock and human health. Although Se occurs naturally in the rocks and soils of many alluvial aquifers, mining and agricultural activities can increase its rate of mobilization and transport to surface waters. Attention is given here to regions where nonpoint source return flows from irrigated lands carry pollutant loads to aquifers and streams, contributing to concentrations that violate regulatory and performance standards. Of particular concern is the heightened level and mobilization of Se influenced by nitrate (NO3), a harmful pollutant in its own right. We present a numerical model that simulates the reactive transport of Se and nitrogen (N) species in a coupled groundwater-surface water system. Building upon a conceptual model that incorporates the major processes affecting Se and NO3 transport in an irrigated watershed, the model links the finite-difference models MODFLOW, UZF-RT3D, and OTIS, to simulate flow and reactive transport of multiple chemical species in both the aquifer and a stream network, with mass exchange between the two. The capability of the new model is showcased by calibration, testing, and application to a 500 km2 region in Colorado’s Lower Arkansas River Valley using a rich data set gathered over a 10-yr period. Simulation of spatial and temporal distributions of Se concentration reveals conditions that exceed standards in groundwater for approximately 20% of the area. For the Arkansas River, standards are exceeded by 290%–450%. Simulation indicates that river concentrations of NO3 alone are near the current interim standard for the total of all dissolved N species. These results indicate the need for future use of the developed model to investigate the prospects for land and water best management practices to decrease pollutant levels.

Methane in groundwater from a leaking gas well, Piceance Basin, Colorado, USA

Released April 10, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Science of the Total Environment (634) 791-801

Peter B. McMahon, Judith C. Thomas, John T. Crawford, Mark M. Dornblaser, Andrew G. Hunt

Site-specific and regional analysis of time-series hydrologic and geochemical data collected from 15 monitoring wells in the Piceance Basin indicated that a leaking gas well contaminated shallow groundwater with thermogenic methane. The gas well was drilled in 1956 and plugged and abandoned in 1990. Chemical and isotopic data showed the thermogenic methane was not from mixing of gas-rich formation water with shallow groundwater or natural migration of a free-gas phase. Water-level and methane-isotopic data, and video logs from a deep monitoring well, indicated that a shale confining layer ~125 m below the zone of contamination was an effective barrier to upward migration of water and gas. The gas well, located 27 m from the contaminated monitoring well, had ~1000 m of uncemented annular space behind production casing that was the likely pathway through which deep gas migrated into the shallow aquifer. Measurements of soil gas near the gas well showed no evidence of methane emissions from the soil to the atmosphere even though methane concentrations in shallow groundwater (16 to 20 mg/L) were above air-saturation levels. Methane degassing from the water table was likely oxidized in the relatively thick unsaturated zone (~18 m), thus rendering the leak undetectable at land surface. Drilling and plugging records for oil and gas wells in Colorado and proxies for depth to groundwater indicated thousands of oil and gas wells were drilled and plugged in the same timeframe as the implicated gas well, and the majority of those wells were in areas with relatively large depths to groundwater. This study represents one of the few detailed subsurface investigations of methane leakage from a plugged and abandoned gas well. As such, it could provide a useful template for prioritizing and assessing potentially leaking wells, particularly in cases where the leakage does not manifest itself at land surface.

Chlamydia psittaci in feral Rosy-faced Lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) and other backyard birds in Maricopa County, Arizona

Released April 10, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Wildlife Diseases (54) 248-260

Robert Dusek, Anne Justice-Allen, Barbara Bodenstein, Susan N. Knowles, Daniel A. Grear, Laura Adams, Craig Levy, Haley D. Yaglom, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Paula Ciembor, Christopher R. Gregory, Denise Pesti, Branson W. Ritchie

In 2013, a mortality event of nonnative, feral Rosy-faced Lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) in residential backyards in Maricopa County, Arizona, US was attributed to infection with Chlamydia psittaci. In June 2014, additional mortality occurred in the same region. Accordingly, in August 2014 we sampled live lovebirds and sympatric bird species visiting backyard bird feeders to determine the prevalence of DNA and the seroprevalence of antibodies to C. psittaci using real-time PCR-based testing and elementary body agglutination, respectively. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was present in conjunctival-choanal or cloacal swabs in 93% (43/46) of lovebirds and 10% (14/142) of sympatric birds. Antibodies to C. psittaci were detected in 76% (31/41) of lovebirds and 7% (7/102) of sympatric birds. Among the sympatric birds, Rock Doves (Columba livia) had the highest prevalence of C. psittaci DNA (75%; 6/8) and seroprevalence (25%; 2/8). Psittacine circovirus 1 DNA was also identified, using real-time PCR-based testing, from the same swab samples in 69% (11/16) of species sampled, with a prevalence of 80% (37/46) in lovebirds and 27% (38/142) in sympatric species. The presence of either Rosy-faced Lovebirds or Rock Doves at residential bird feeders may be cause for concern for epizootic and zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci in this region.

Lava lake activity at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano in 2016

Released April 10, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5008

Matthew R. Patrick, Tim R. Orr, Donald A. Swanson, Tamar Elias, Brian Shiro

The ongoing summit eruption at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, began in March 2008 with the formation of the Overlook crater, within Halema‘uma‘u Crater. As of late 2016, the Overlook crater contained a large, persistently active lava lake (250 × 190 meters). The accessibility of the lake allows frequent direct observations, and a robust geophysical monitoring network closely tracks subtle changes at the summit. These conditions present one of the best opportunities worldwide for understanding persistent lava lake behavior and the geophysical signals associated with open-vent basaltic eruptions. In this report, we provide a descriptive and visual summary of lava lake activity during 2016, a year consisting of continuous lava lake activity. The lake surface was composed of large black crustal plates separated by narrow incandescent spreading zones. The dominant motion of the surface was normally from north to south, but spattering produced transient disruptions to this steady motion. Spattering in the lake was common, consisting of one or more sites on the lake margin. The Overlook crater was continuously modified by the deposition of spatter (often as a thin veneer) on the crater walls, with frequent collapses of this adhered lava into the lake. Larger collapses, involving lithic material from the crater walls, triggered several small explosive events that deposited bombs and lapilli around the Halema‘uma‘u Crater rim, but these did not threaten public areas. The lava lake level varied over several tens of meters, controlled primarily by changes in summit magma reservoir pressure (in part driven by magma supply rates) and secondarily by fluctuations in spattering and gas release from the lake (commonly involving gas pistoning). The lake emitted a persistent gas plume, normally averaging 1,000–8,000 metric tons per day (t/d) of sulfur dioxide (SO2), as well as a constant fallout of small juvenile and lithic particles, including Pele’s hair and tears. The gas emissions created volcanic air pollution (vog) that affected large areas of the Island of Hawai‘i. The summit eruption has been a major attraction for visitors in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. During 2016, the rising lake levels allowed the lake and its spattering to be more consistently visible from public viewing areas, enhancing the visitor experience. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitors the summit eruption and keeps emergency managers and the public informed of activity.

New geologic mapping of the northwestern Willamette Valley, Oregon, and its American Viticultural Areas (AVAs)—A foundation for understanding their terroir

Released April 10, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1044

Ray E. Wells, Ralph A. Haugerud, Alan Niem, Wendy Niem, Lina Ma, Ian Madin, Russell C. Evarts

A geologic map of the greater Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area is planned that will document the region’s complex geology (currently in review: “Geologic map of the greater Portland metropolitan area and surrounding region, Oregon and Washington,” by Wells, R.E., Haugerud, R.A., Niem, A., Niem, W., Ma, L., Evarts, R., Madin, I., and others). The map, which is planned to be published as a U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map, will consist of 51 7.5′ quadrangles covering more than 2,500 square miles, and it will represent more than 100 person-years of geologic mapping and studies. The region was mapped at the relatively detailed scale of 1:24,000 to improve understanding of its geology and its earthquake hazards. More than 100 geologic map units will record the 50-million-year history of volcanism, sedimentation, folding, and faulting above the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The geology contributes to the varied terroir of four American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) in the northwestern Willamette Valley: the Yamhill-Carlton, Dundee Hills, Chehalem Mountains, and Ribbon Ridge AVAs. Terroir is defined as the environmental conditions, especially climate and soils, that influence the quality and character of a region’s crops—in this case, grapes for wine.

On this new poster (“New geologic mapping of the northwestern Willamette Valley, Oregon, and its American Viticultural Areas (AVAs)—A foundation for understanding their terroir”), we present the geologic map at a reduced scale (about 1:175,000) to show the general distribution of geologic map units, and we highlight, discuss, and illustrate six major geologic events that helped shape the region and form its terrior. We also discuss the geologic elements that contribute to the character of each of the four AVAs in the northwestern Willamette Valley.

Effects of groundwater withdrawals from the Hurricane Fault zone on discharge of saline water from Pah Tempe Springs, Washington County, Utah

Released April 10, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5040

Philip M. Gardner

Pah Tempe Springs, located in Washington County, Utah, contribute about 95,000 tons of dissolved solids annually along a 1,500-foot gaining reach of the Virgin River. The river gains more than 10 cubic feet per second along the reach as thermal, saline springwater discharges from dozens of orifices located along the riverbed and above the river on both banks. The spring complex discharges from fractured Permian Toroweap Limestone where the river crosses the north-south trending Hurricane Fault. The Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program is evaluating the feasibility of capturing and desalinizing the discharge of Pah Tempe Springs to improve downstream water quality in the Virgin River. The most viable plan, identified by the Bureau of Reclamation in early studies, is to capture spring discharge by pumping thermal groundwater from within the Hurricane Fault footwall damage zone and to treat this water prior to returning it to the river.

Three multiple-day interference tests were conducted between November 2013 and November 2014, wherein thermal groundwater was pumped from fractured carbonate rock in the fault damage zone at rates of up to 7 cubic feet per second. Pumping periods for these tests lasted approximately 66, 74, and 67 hours, respectively, and the tests occurred with controlled streamflows of approximately 2.0, 3.5, and 24.5 cubic feet per second, respectively, in the Virgin River upstream from the springs reach. Specific conductance, water temperature, and discharge were monitored continuously in the river (upstream and downstream of the springs reach) at selected individual springs, and in the pumping discharge during each of the tests. Water levels were monitored in three observation wells screened in the thermal system. Periodic stream and groundwater samples were analyzed for dissolved-solids concentration and the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. Additional discrete measurements of field parameters (specific conductance, water temperature, pH, and discharge) were made at up to 26 sites along the springs reach. These data demonstrate the interaction between the saline, thermal groundwater system and the Virgin River, and provide estimates of reductions in dissolved-solids loads to the river.

The interference tests show that pumping thermal groundwater from the shallow carbonate aquifer adjacent to the springs is effective at capturing high dissolved-solids loads discharging from Pah Tempe Springs before they enter the Virgin River. Discharge measurements made in the Virgin River downstream of the springs reach show that streamflow is reduced by approximately the amount pumped, indicating that complete capture of thermal discharge is possible. During the February 2014 test, the dissolved-solids load removed by pumping (190 tons per day) was approximately equal to the dissolved-solids load reduction observed in the river below the springs reach, indicating near 100-percent efficient capture of spring-sourced dissolved solids. However, an observed decrease in temperature and specific conductance of the pumping discharge during the high-flow test in November 2014 showed that capture of the cool, fresh river water can occur and is more likely at a higher stage in the Virgin River.

Effects of hillslope gully stabilization on erosion and sediment production in the Torreon Wash watershed, New Mexico, 2009–12

Released April 10, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5026

Anne Marie Matherne, Anne C. Tillery, Kyle R. Douglas-Mankin

Sediment erosion and deposition in two sets of paired (treated and untreated) upland drainages in the Torreon Wash watershed, upper Rio Puerco Basin, New Mexico, were examined over a 3 1/2-year period from spring 2009 through fall 2012. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of shallow, loose-stone check dams, or “one-rock dams,” as a hillslope gully erosion stabilization and mitigation method, and its potential for retaining upland eroded soils and decreasing delivery of sediment to lower ephemeral stream channels. Two high-resolution topographic surveys, completed at the beginning and end of the study period, were used to assess the effects of the mitigation measures at paired-drainage sites in both Penistaja Arroyo and Papers Wash watersheds, and at six main-stem-channel cross-section clusters along Penistaja Arroyo and Torreon Wash in the Torreon Wash watershed.

For both drainage pairs, the treated drainage had greater sediment aggradation near the channel than the untreated drainage. Erosion was the dominant geomorphic process in the untreated Penistaja Arroyo drainage, whereas aggradation was the dominant process in the other three drainages. For the Penistaja Arroyo paired drainages, the treated site showed a 51-percent increase in area aggraded and 67-percent increase in volume aggraded per area analyzed over the untreated site. Both Papers Wash drainages showed net aggradation, but with similar treatment effect, with the treated site showing a 29-percent increase in area aggraded and 60-percent increase in volume aggraded per area analyzed over the untreated site. In the untreated Penistaja Arroyo drainage, the calculated minimum erosion rate was 0.0055 inches per year (in/yr; 0.14 millimeters per year [mm/yr]), whereas the calculated aggradation rates for the three drainages for which aggradation was the dominant geomorphic process were 0.0063 in/yr (0.16 mm/yr) for the Penistaja Arroyo treated drainage, 0.012 in/yr (0.31 mm/yr) for the Papers Wash untreated drainage, and 0.988 in/yr (2.51 mm/yr) for the Papers Wash treated drainage.

Changes in the channel cross section along the main-stem Penistaja Arroyo and Torreon Wash were also examined. Channel-bank slumping and erosion of previously deposited bed material were apparent sources for sediment suspended in ephemeral streamflow. Cross-sectional channel surveys indicated examples of both erosion and deposition along each channel over the study period. Because the drainage area of the treated drainages is small compared to that of the Torreon Wash watershed, the upland mitigation measures would not be expected to measurably affect short-term concentrations of suspended sediment in main-stem channels.

One-rock-dam mitigation structures in the upland drainages appear to have resulted in a decrease in sediment delivery to the main-stem channel. One-rock-dam mitigation structures may affect streamflow through their influence on runoff volume (via infiltration) and runoff rate (via detention), both of which may vary with time after structure installation.

Postwildfire measurement of soil physical and hydraulic properties at selected sampling sites in the 2011 Las Conchas wildfire burn scar, Jemez Mountains, north-central New Mexico

Released April 10, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5028

Orlando C. Romero, Brian A. Ebel, Deborah A. Martin, Katie W. Buchan, Alanna D. Jornigan

The generation of runoff and the resultant flash flooding can be substantially larger following wildfire than for similar rainstorms that precede wildfire disturbance. Flash flooding after the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in New Mexico provided the motivation for this investigation to assess postwildfire effects on soil-hydraulic properties (SHPs) and soil-physical properties (SPPs) as a function of remotely sensed burn severity 4 years following the wildfire. A secondary purpose of this report is to illustrate a methodology to determine SHPs that analyzes infiltrometer data by using three different analysis methods. The SPPs and SHPs are measured as a function of remotely sensed burn severity by using the difference in the Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) metric for seven sites. The dNBR metric was used to guide field sample collection across a full spectrum of burn severities that covered the range of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) and Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) thematic classes from low to high severity. The SPPs (initial and saturated soil-water content, bulk density, soil-organic matter, and soil-particle size) and SHPs (field-saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity) were measured under controlled laboratory conditions for soil cores collected in the field. The SHPs were estimated by using tension infiltrometer measurements and three different data analysis methods. These measurements showed large effects of burn severity, focused in the top
1 centimeter (cm) of soil, on some SPPs (bulk density, soil organic matter, and particle sizes). The threshold of these bulk density and soil organic matter effects was between 300 and 400 dNBR, which corresponds to a MTBS thematic class between moderate and high burn severity and a BARC4 thematic class of high severity. Gravel content and the content of fines in the top 1 cm of soil had a higher threshold value between 450 and 500 dNBR. Lesser effects on SPPs were observed at depths of 1–3 cm and 3–6 cm. In contrast, SHPs showed little effect from dNBR or from MTBS/BARC4 thematic class. Measurements suggested that 4 years of elapsed time after the wildfire may be sufficient for SHP recovery in this area. These measurements also indicated that SPP differences as a function of burn severity cannot be used as reliable indicators of SHP differences as a function of burn severity.

Geologic map of the Weldona 7.5′ quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado

Released April 09, 2018 10:30 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Map 3396

Margaret E. Berry, Emily M. Taylor, Janet L. Slate, James B. Paces, Paul R. Hanson, Theodore R. Brandt

The Weldona 7.5′ quadrangle is located on the semiarid plains of northeastern Colorado, along the South Platte River corridor where the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The Pierre Shale is largely covered by surficial deposits that formed from alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes operating in concert with environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has played a major role in shaping surficial geology in the map area, which is several tens of kilometers downstream from where headwater tributaries join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters has affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing deposition of alluvium and river incision in the Weldona quadrangle. During the Pleistocene the course of the river within the map area shifted progressively southward as it incised, and by late middle Pleistocene the river was south of its present position, cutting and filling deep paleochannels now covered by younger alluvium. The river shifted back to the north during the late Pleistocene. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks are unglaciated tributaries originating in the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range that also have played a major role in shaping surficial geology of the map area. Periodically during the late Pleistocene, major flood events on these tributaries deposited large volumes of sediment at their confluences, forming a broad, low-gradient fan of sidestream alluvium that could have occasionally dammed the river for short periods of time. Eolian sand deposits of the Sterling (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the quadrangle and record past episodes of sand mobilization during times of prolonged drought. With the onset of irrigation and damming during historical times, the South Platte River has changed from a broad, shallow, and sandy braided river with highly variable seasonal discharge to a much narrower, deeper river with braided-meandering transition morphology and more uniform discharge.

Early growth interactions between a mangrove and an herbaceous salt marsh species are not affected by elevated CO2 or drought

Released April 09, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (207) 74-81

Rebecca J. Howard, Camille L. Stagg, Herry S. Utomo

Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are likely to influence future distributions of plants and plant community structure in many regions of the world through effects on photosynthetic rates. In recent decades the encroachment of woody mangrove species into herbaceous marshes has been documented along the U.S. northern Gulf of Mexico coast. These species shifts have been attributed primarily to rising sea levels and warming winter temperatures, but the role of elevated CO2 and water availability may become more prominent drivers of species interactions under future climate conditions. Drought has been implicated as a major factor contributing to salt marsh vegetation dieback in this region. In this greenhouse study we examined the effects of CO2 concentration (∼380 ppm, ∼700 ppm) and water regime (drought, saturated, flooded) on early growth of Avicennia germinans, a C3 mangrove species, and Spartina alterniflora, a C4 grass. Plants were grown in monocultures and in a mixed-species assemblage. We found that neither species responded to elevated CO2 over the 10-month duration of the experiment, and there were few interactions between experimental factors. Two effects of water regime were documented: lower A. germinanspneumatophore biomass under drought conditions, and lower belowground biomass under flooded conditions regardless of planting assemblage. Evidence of interspecific interactions was noted. Competition for aboveground resources (e.g., light) was indicated by lower S. alterniflora stem biomass in mixed-species assemblage compared to biomass in S. alterniflora monocultures. Pneumatophore biomass of A. germinans was reduced when grown in monoculture compared to the mixed-species assemblage, indicating competition for belowground resources. These interactions provide insight into how these species may respond following major disturbance events that lead to vegetation dieback. Site variation in propagule availability and physico-chemical conditions will determine plant community composition and structure following such disturbances when these two species co-occur.

Wetlands in a changing climate: Science, policy and management

Released April 09, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Wetlands

William R. Moomaw, G.L. Chmura, Gillian T. Davies, Max Finlayson, Beth A. Middleton, Sue M. Natali, James Perry, Nigel Roulet, Ariana Sutton-Grier

Part 1 of this review synthesizes recent research on status and climate vulnerability of freshwater and saltwater wetlands, and their contribution to addressing climate change (carbon cycle, adaptation, resilience). Peatlands and vegetated coastal wetlands are among the most carbon rich sinks on the planet sequestering approximately as much carbon as do global forest ecosystems. Estimates of the consequences of rising temperature on current wetland carbon storage and future carbon sequestration potential are summarized. We also demonstrate the need to prevent drying of wetlands and thawing of permafrost by disturbances and rising temperatures to protect wetland carbon stores and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services. Preventing further wetland loss is found to be important in limiting future emissions to meet climate goals, but is seldom considered. In Part 2, the paper explores the policy and management realm from international to national, subnational and local levels to identify strategies and policies reflecting an integrated understanding of both wetland and climate change science. Specific recommendations are made to capture synergies between wetlands and carbon cycle management, adaptation and resiliency to further enable researchers, policy makers and practitioners to protect wetland carbon and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services.

A science products inventory for citizen-science planning and evaluation

Released April 09, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, BioScience

Andrea Wiggins, Rick Bonney, Gretchen LeBuhn, Julia K. Parrish, Jake Weltzin

Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity. The SPI includes a collection of items for tracking the production of science outputs and data practices, which are described and illustrated with examples. Several opportunities for further development of the initial inventory are highlighted, as well as potential for using the inventory as a tool to guide project management, funding, and research on citizen science.

Remote sensing of tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) impacts along 412 km of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

Released April 09, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Ecological Indicators (89) 365-375

Ashton Bedford, Temuulen T. Sankey, Joel B. Sankey, Laura E.C. Durning, Barbara Ralston

Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) is an invasive plant species that is rapidly expanding along arid and semi-arid rivers in the western United States. A biocontrol agent, tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), was released in 2001 in California, Colorado, Utah, and Texas. In 2009, the tamarisk beetle was found further south than anticipated in the Colorado River ecosystem within the Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Our objectives were to classify tamarisk stands along 412 km of the Colorado River from the Glen Canyon Dam through the Grand Canyon National Park using 2009 aerial, high spatial resolution multispectral imagery, and then quantify tamarisk beetle impacts by comparing the pre-beetle images from 2009 with 2013 post-beetle images. We classified tamarisk presence in 2009 using the Mahalanobis Distance method with a total of 2500 training samples, and assessed the classification accuracy with an independent set of 7858 samples across 49 image quads. A total of 214 ha of tamarisk were detected in 2009 along the Colorado River, where each image quad, on average, included an 8.4 km segment of the river. Tamarisk detection accuracies varied across the 49 image quads, but the combined overall accuracy across the entire study region was 74%. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 2009 and 2013 with a region-specific ratio of >1.5 decline between the two image dates (2009NDVI/2013NDVI), we detected tamarisk defoliation due to beetle herbivory. The total beetle-impacted tamarisk area was 32 ha across the study region, where tamarisk defoliation ranged 1–86% at the local levels. Our tamarisk classification can aid long-term efforts to monitor the spread and impact of the beetle along the river and the eventual mortality of tamarisk due to beetle impacts. Identifying areas of tamarisk defoliation is a useful ecological indicator for managers to plan restoration and tamarisk removal efforts.

MoisturEC: a new R program for moisture content estimation from electrical conductivity data

Released April 06, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Groundwater

Neil Terry, Frederick D. Day-Lewis, Dale D. Werkema, John W. Lane Jr.

Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data‐analysis tools are needed to “translate” geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user‐friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil‐moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two‐ and three‐dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach.

Movements and landscape use of Eastern Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca in Central Asia

Released April 06, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Bird Study

Sharon Poessel, Evgeny A. Bragin, Peter B. Sharpe, David K. Garcelon, Kordian Bartoszuk, Todd E. Katzner

Capsule: We describe ecological factors associated with movements of a globally declining raptor species, the Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca.

Aims: To describe the movements, habitat associations and resource selection of Eastern Imperial Eagles marked in Central Asia.

Methods: We used global positioning system (GPS) data sent via satellite telemetry devices deployed on Eastern Imperial Eagles captured in Kazakhstan to calculate distances travelled and to associate habitat and weather variables with eagle locations collected throughout the annual cycle. We also used resource selection models to evaluate habitat use of tracked birds during autumn migration. Separately, we used wing-tagging recovery data to broaden our understanding of wintering locations of eagles.

Results: Eagles tagged in Kazakhstan wintered in most countries on the Arabian Peninsula, as well as Iran and India. The adult eagle we tracked travelled more efficiently than did the four pre-adults. During autumn migration, telemetered eagles used a mixture of vegetation types, but during winter and summer, they primarily used bare and sparsely vegetated areas. Finally, telemetered birds used orographic updrafts to subsidize their autumn migration flight, but they relied on thermal updrafts during spring migration.

Conclusion: Our study is the first to use GPS telemetry to describe year-round movements and habitat associations of Eastern Imperial Eagles in Central Asia. Our findings provide insight into the ecology of this vulnerable raptor species that can contribute to conservation efforts on its behalf.

Geochemistry and mineralogy of late Quaternary loess in the upper Mississippi River valley, USA: Provenance and correlation with Laurentide Ice Sheet history

Released April 06, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Quaternary Science Reviews (187) 235-269

Daniel Muhs, E. Arthur Bettis III, Gary L. Skipp

The midcontinent of North America contains some of the thickest and most extensive last-glacial loess deposits in the world, known as Peoria Loess. Peoria Loess of the upper Mississippi River valley region is thought to have had temporally varying glaciogenic sources resulting from inputs of sediment to the Mississippi River from different lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Here, we explore a new method of determining loess provenance using K/Rb and K/Ba values (in K-feldspars and micas) in loess from a number of different regions in North America. Results indicate that K/Rb and K/Ba values can distinguish loess originating from diverse geologic terrains in North America. Further, different loess bodies that are known to have had the same source sediments (using other criteria) have similar K/Rb and K/Ba values. We also studied three thick loess sections in the upper Mississippi River valley region. At each site, the primary composition of the loess changed over the course of the last glacial period, and K/Rb and K/Ba values parallel changes in carbonate mineral content and clay mineralogy. We thus confirm conclusions of earlier investigators that loess composition changed as a result of the shifting dominance of different lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and the changing course of the Mississippi River. We conclude that K/Rb and K/Ba values are effective, robust, and rapid indicators of loess provenance that can be applied to many regions of the world.

The future of fish passage science, engineering, and practice

Released April 06, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Fish and Fisheries (19) 340-362

Ana T. Silva, Martyn C. Lucas, Theodore R. Castro-Santos, Christos Katopodis, Lee J. Baumgartner, Jason D. Thiem, Kim Aarestrup, Paulo S. Pompeu, Gordon C. O'Brien, Douglas C. Braun, Nicholas J. Burnett, David Z. Zhu, Hans-Petter Fjeldstad, Torbjorn Forseth, Nallamuthu Rajarathnam, John G. Williams, Steven J. Cooke

Much effort has been devoted to developing, constructing and refining fish passage facilities to enable target species to pass barriers on fluvial systems, and yet, fishway science, engineering and practice remain imperfect. In this review, 17 experts from different fish passage research fields (i.e., biology, ecology, physiology, ecohydraulics, engineering) and from different continents (i.e., North and South America, Europe, Africa, Australia) identified knowledge gaps and provided a roadmap for research priorities and technical developments. Once dominated by an engineering‐focused approach, fishway science today involves a wide range of disciplines from fish behaviour to socioeconomics to complex modelling of passage prioritization options in river networks. River barrier impacts on fish migration and dispersal are currently better understood than historically, but basic ecological knowledge underpinning the need for effective fish passage in many regions of the world, including in biodiversity hotspots (e.g., equatorial Africa, South‐East Asia), remains largely unknown. Designing efficient fishways, with minimal passage delay and post‐passage impacts, requires adaptive management and continued innovation. While the use of fishways in river restoration demands a transition towards fish passage at the community scale, advances in selective fishways are also needed to manage invasive fish colonization. Because of the erroneous view in some literature and communities of practice that fish passage is largely a proven technology, improved international collaboration, information sharing, method standardization and multidisciplinary training are needed. Further development of regional expertise is needed in South America, Asia and Africa where hydropower dams are currently being planned and constructed.

Carnivore hotspots in Peninsular Malaysia and their landscape attributes

Released April 06, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, PLoS ONE (13) 1-18

Shyamala Ratnayeke, Frank T. van Manen, Gopalasamy Reuben Clements, Noor Azleen Mohd Kulaimi, Stuart P. Sharp

Mammalian carnivores play a vital role in ecosystem functioning. However, they are prone to extinction because of low population densities and growth rates, and high levels of persecution or exploitation. In tropical biodiversity hotspots such as Peninsular Malaysia, rapid conversion of natural habitats threatens the persistence of this vulnerable group of animals. Here, we carried out the first comprehensive literature review on 31 carnivore species reported to occur in Peninsular Malaysia and updated their probable distribution. We georeferenced 375 observations of 28 species of carnivore from 89 unique geographic locations using records spanning 1948 to 2014. Using the Getis-Ord Gi*statistic and weighted survey records by IUCN Red List status, we identified hotspots of species that were of conservation concern and built regression models to identify environmental and anthropogenic landscape factors associated with Getis-Ord Gi* z scores. Our analyses identified two carnivore hotspots that were spatially concordant with two of the peninsula’s largest and most contiguous forest complexes, associated with Taman Negara National Park and Royal Belum State Park. A cold spot overlapped with the southwestern region of the Peninsula, reflecting the disappearance of carnivores with higher conservation rankings from increasingly fragmented natural habitats. Getis-Ord Gi* z scores were negatively associated with elevation, and positively associated with the proportion of natural land cover and distance from the capital city. Malaysia contains some of the world’s most diverse carnivore assemblages, but recent rates of forest loss are some of the highest in the world. Reducing poaching and maintaining large, contiguous tracts of lowland forests will be crucial, not only for the persistence of threatened carnivores, but for many mammalian species in general.

Model structure of the stream salmonid simulator (S3)—A dynamic model for simulating growth, movement, and survival of juvenile salmonids

Released April 06, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1056

Russell W. Perry, John M. Plumb, Edward C. Jones, Nicholas A. Som, Nicholas J. Hetrick, Thomas B. Hardy

Fisheries and water managers often use population models to aid in understanding the effect of alternative water management or restoration actions on anadromous fish populations. We developed the Stream Salmonid Simulator (S3) to help resource managers evaluate the effect of management alternatives on juvenile salmonid populations. S3 is a deterministic stage-structured population model that tracks daily growth, movement, and survival of juvenile salmon. A key theme of the model is that river flow affects habitat availability and capacity, which in turn drives density dependent population dynamics. To explicitly link population dynamics to habitat quality and quantity, the river environment is constructed as a one-dimensional series of linked habitat units, each of which has an associated daily time series of discharge, water temperature, and usable habitat area or carrying capacity. The physical characteristics of each habitat unit and the number of fish occupying each unit, in turn, drive survival and growth within each habitat unit and movement of fish among habitat units.

The purpose of this report is to outline the underlying general structure of the S3 model that is common among different applications of the model. We have developed applications of the S3 model for juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the lower Klamath River. Thus, this report is a companion to current application of the S3 model to the Trinity River (in review). The general S3 model structure provides a biological and physical framework for the salmonid freshwater life cycle. This framework captures important demographics of juvenile salmonids aimed at translating management alternatives into simulated population responses. Although the S3 model is built on this common framework, the model has been constructed to allow much flexibility in application of the model to specific river systems. The ability for practitioners to include system-specific information for the physical stream structure, survival, growth, and movement processes ensures that simulations provide results that are relevant to the questions asked about the population under study.

Movements and habitat use locations of manatees within Kings Bay Florida during the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge winter season (November 15–March 31)

Released April 06, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1051

Daniel H. Slone, Susan M. Butler, James P. Reid

Kings Bay, Florida, is one of the most important natural winter habitat locations for the federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee). Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1983 specifically to provide protection for manatees and their critical habitat. To aid managers at the refuge and other agencies with this task, spatial analyses of local habitat use locations and travel corridors of manatees in Kings Bay during manatee season (November 15–March 31) are presented based on Global Positioning System telemetry of 41 manatees over a 12-year timespan (2006−18). Local habitat use areas and travel corridors differed spatially when Gulf of Mexico water temperatures were cold (less than or equal to 17 degrees Celsius) versus when they were warm (greater than 17 degrees Celsius). During times of cold water, manatees were found in higher concentrations in the main springs and canals throughout the eastern side of the bay, whereas when waters were warm, they were found more generally throughout the bay and into Crystal River, except for the central open part of the bay and the southwest corner.

Legacy K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data from the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska

Released April 06, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1033

Sample descriptions and analytical data for more than 200 K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar analyses from rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska are reported here. Samples were collected over a period of 20 years by Bruce R. Reed and Marvin A. Lanphere (both U.S. Geological Survey) as part of their studies of the batholith.

Documentation of particle-size analyzer time series, and discrete suspended-sediment and bed-sediment sample data collection, Niobrara River near Spencer, Nebraska, October 2014

Released April 06, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Data Series 1079

Nathaniel J. Schaepe, Anthony M. Coleman, Ronald B. Zelt

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, monitored a sediment release by Nebraska Public Power District from Spencer Dam located on the Niobrara River near Spencer, Nebraska, during the fall of 2014. The accumulated sediment behind Spencer Dam ordinarily is released semiannually; however, the spring 2014 release was postponed until the fall. Because of the postponement, the scheduled fall sediment release would consist of a larger volume of sediment. The larger than normal sediment release expected in fall 2014 provided an opportunity for the USGS and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to improve the understanding of sediment transport during reservoir sediment releases. A primary objective was to collect continuous suspended-sediment data during the first days of the sediment release to document rapid changes in sediment concentrations. For this purpose, the USGS installed a laser-diffraction particle-size analyzer at a site near the outflow of the dam to collect continuous suspended-sediment data. The laser-diffraction particle-size analyzer measured volumetric particle concentration and particle-size distribution from October 1 to 2 (pre-sediment release) and October 5 to 9 (during sediment release). Additionally, the USGS manually collected discrete suspended-sediment and bed-sediment samples before, during, and after the sediment release. Samples were collected at two sites upstream from Spencer Dam and at three bridges downstream from Spencer Dam. The resulting datasets and basic metadata associated with the datasets were published as a data release; this report provides additional documentation about the data collection methods and the quality of the data.

Connectivity of streams and wetlands to downstream waters: An integrated systems framework

Released April 05, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of the American Water Resources Association (54) 298-322

Scott G. Leibowitz, Parker J. Wigington, Kate A. Schoefield, Laurie C. Alexander, Melanie Vanderhoof, Heather E. Golden

Interest in connectivity has increased in the aquatic sciences, partly because of its relevance to the Clean Water Act. This paper has two objectives: (1) provide a framework to understand hydrological, chemical, and biological connectivity, focusing on how headwater streams and wetlands connect to and contribute to rivers; and (2) briefly review methods to quantify hydrological and chemical connectivity. Streams and wetlands affect river structure and function by altering material and biological fluxes to the river; this depends on two factors: (1) functions within streams and wetlands that affect material fluxes; and (2) connectivity (or isolation) from streams and wetlands to rivers that allows (or prevents) material transport between systems. Connectivity can be described in terms of frequency, magnitude, duration, timing, and rate of change. It results from physical characteristics of a system, e.g., climate, soils, geology, topography, and the spatial distribution of aquatic components. Biological connectivity is also affected by traits and behavior of the biota. Connectivity can be altered by human impacts, often in complex ways. Because of variability in these factors, connectivity is not constant but varies over time and space. Connectivity can be quantified with field‐based methods, modeling, and remote sensing. Further studies using these methods are needed to classify and quantify connectivity of aquatic ecosystems and to understand how impacts affect connectivity.

Biota connect aquatic habitats throughout freshwater ecosystem mosaics

Released April 05, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of the American Water Resources Association (54) 372-399

Kate A. Schofield, Laurie C. Alexander, Caroline E. Ridley, Melanie Vanderhoof, Ken M. Fritz, Bradley Autrey, Julie DeMeester, William G. Kepner, Charles R. Lane, Scott Leibowitz, Amina I. Pollard

Freshwater ecosystems are linked at various spatial and temporal scales by movements of biota adapted to life in water. We review the literature on movements of aquatic organisms that connect different types of freshwater habitats, focusing on linkages from streams and wetlands to downstream waters. Here, streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, ponds, and other freshwater habitats are viewed as dynamic freshwater ecosystem mosaics (FEMs) that collectively provide the resources needed to sustain aquatic life. Based on existing evidence, it is clear that biotic linkages throughout FEMs have important consequences for biological integrity and biodiversity. All aquatic organisms move within and among FEM components, but differ in the mode, frequency, distance, and timing of their movements. These movements allow biota to recolonize habitats, avoid inbreeding, escape stressors, locate mates, and acquire resources. Cumulatively, these individual movements connect populations within and among FEMs and contribute to local and regional diversity, resilience to disturbance, and persistence of aquatic species in the face of environmental change. Thus, the biological connections established by movement of biota among streams, wetlands, and downstream waters are critical to the ecological integrity of these systems. Future research will help advance our understanding of the movements that link FEMs and their cumulative effects on downstream waters.

Featured collection introduction: Connectivity of streams and wetlands to downstream waters

Released April 05, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of the American Water Resources Association (54) 287-297

Laurie C. Alexander, Ken M. Fritz, Kate Schofield, Bradley Autrey, Julie DeMeester, Heather E. Golden, David C. Goodrich, William G. Kepner, Hadas R. Kiperwas, Charles R. Lane, Stephen D. LeDuc, Scott Leibowitz, Michael G. McManus, Amina I. Pollard, Caroline E. Ridley, Melanie Vanderhoof, Parker J. Wigington

Connectivity is a fundamental but highly dynamic property of watersheds. Variability in the types and degrees of aquatic ecosystem connectivity presents challenges for researchers and managers seeking to accurately quantify its effects on critical hydrologic, biogeochemical, and biological processes. However, protecting natural gradients of connectivity is key to protecting the range of ecosystem services that aquatic ecosystems provide. In this featured collection, we review the available evidence on connections and functions by which streams and wetlands affect the integrity of downstream waters such as large rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries. The reviews in this collection focus on the types of waters whose protections under the U.S. Clean Water Act have been called into question by U.S. Supreme Court cases. We synthesize 40+ years of research on longitudinal, lateral, and vertical fluxes of energy, material, and biota between aquatic ecosystems included within the Act's frame of reference. Many questions about the roles of streams and wetlands in sustaining downstream water integrity can be answered from currently available literature, and emerging research is rapidly closing data gaps with exciting new insights into aquatic connectivity and function at local, watershed, and regional scales. Synthesis of foundational and emerging research is needed to support science‐based efforts to provide safe, reliable sources of fresh water for present and future generations.

Montane-breeding bird distribution and abundance across national parks of southwestern Alaska

Released April 05, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management

Courtney L. Amundson, Colleen M. Handel, Daniel R. Ruthrauff, T. Lee Tibbitts, Robert Gill

Between 2004 and 2008, biologists conducted an inventory of breeding birds during May–June primarily in montane areas (>100 m above sea level) in Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve (Aniakchak NMP), Katmai National Park and Preserve (Katmai NPP), and Lake Clark National Park and Preserve (Lake Clark NPP) in southwestern Alaska. Observers conducted 1,021 point counts along 169 transects within 63 10-km × 10-km plots that were randomly selected and stratified by ecological subsection. We created hierarchical N-mixture models to estimate detection probability and abundance for 15 species, including 12 passerines, 2 galliforms, and 1 shorebird. We first modeled detection probability relative to observer, date within season, and proportion of dense vegetation cover around the point, then modeled abundance as a function of land cover composition (proportion of seven coarse-scale land cover types) within 300 m of the survey point. Land cover relationships varied widely among species but most showed selection for low to tall shrubs (0.2–5 m tall) and an avoidance of alpine and 2 dwarf shrub–herbaceous cover types. After adjusting for species not observed, we estimated a minimum of 107 ± 9 species bred in the areas surveyed within the three parks combined. Species richness was negatively associated with elevation and associated land cover types. At comparable levels of survey effort (n = 721 birds detected), species richness was greatest in Lake Clark NPP (75 ± 12 species), lowest in Aniakchak NMP (45 ± 6 species), and intermediate at Katmai NPP (59 ± 10 species). Species richness was similar at equivalent survey effort (n = 973 birds detected) within the Lime Hills, Alaska Range, and Alaska Peninsula ecoregions (68 ± 8; 79 ± 11; 67 ± 11, respectively). Species composition was similar across all three parks and across the three major ecoregions (Alaska Range, Alaska Peninsula, Lime Hills) that encompass them. Our results provide baseline estimates of relative abundance and models of abundance and species richness relative to land cover that can be used to assess future changes in avian distribution. Additionally, these subarctic montane parks may serve as signals of landscape change and barometers for the assessment of population and distributional changes as a result of warming temperatures and changing precipitation patterns.

Geologic map of the Lower Valley quadrangle, Caribou County, Idaho

Released April 05, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Map 3215

H. Peter Oberlindacher, R. David Hovland, Susan T. Miller, James G. Evans, Robert J. Miller

The Lower Valley 7.5-minute quadrangle, located in the core of the Southeast Idaho Phosphate Resource Area, includes Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary rocks, Pliocene to Pleistocene basalt, and Tertiary to Holocene surficial deposits. The Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary sequence was deposited on a shallow shelf between an emergent craton to the east and the Antler orogenic belt to the west. The Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation hosts high-grade deposits of phosphate that were the subject of geologic studies through much of the 20th century. Open-pit mining of the phosphate has been underway within and near the Lower Valley quadrangle for several decades.

Digital representation of exposures of Precambrian bedrock in parts of Dickinson and Iron Counties, Michigan, and Florence and Marinette Counties, Wisconsin

Released April 04, 2018 09:30 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1042

William F. Cannon, Ruth Schulte, Damon Bickerstaff

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a program of bedrock geologic mapping in much of the central and western Upper Peninsula of Michigan from the 1940s until the late 1990s. Geologic studies in this region are hampered by a scarcity of bedrock exposures because of a nearly continuous blanket of unconsolidated sediments resulting from glaciation of the region during the Pleistocene ice ages. The USGS mapping, done largely at a scale of 1:24,000, routinely recorded the location and extent of exposed bedrock to provide both an indication of where direct observations were made and a guide for future investigations to expedite location of observable rock exposures. The locations of outcrops were generally shown as colored or patterned overlays on printed geologic maps. Although those maps have been scanned and are available as Portable Document Format (PDF) files, no further digital portrayal of the outcrops had been done. We have conducted a prototype study of digitizing and improving locational accuracy of the outcrop locations in parts of Dickinson County, Michigan, to form a data layer that can be used with other data layers in geographic information system applications.

China, the United States, and competition for resources that enable emerging technologies

Released April 04, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Andrew L. Gulley, Nedal T. Nassar, Sean Xun

Historically, resource conflicts have often centered on fuel minerals (particularly oil). Future resource conflicts may, however, focus more on competition for nonfuel minerals that enable emerging technologies. Whether it is rhenium in jet engines, indium in flat panel displays, or gallium in smart phones, obscure elements empower smarter, smaller, and faster technologies, and nations seek stable supplies of these and other nonfuel minerals for their industries. No nation has all of the resources it needs domestically. International trade may lead to international competition for these resources if supplies are deemed at risk or insufficient to satisfy growing demand, especially for minerals used in technologies important to economic development and national security. Here, we compare the net import reliance of China and the United States to inform mineral resource competition and foreign supply risk. Our analysis indicates that China relies on imports for over half of its consumption for 19 of 42 nonfuel minerals, compared with 24 for the United States—11 of which are common to both. It is for these 11 nonfuel minerals that competition between the United States and China may become the most contentious, especially for those with highly concentrated production that prove irreplaceable in pivotal emerging technologies.

Convergent validity between willingness to pay elicitation methods: an application to Grand Canyon whitewater boaters

Released April 04, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management

Christopher Neher, Lucas S. Bair, John Duffield, David A. Patterson, Katherine Neher

We directly compare trip willingness to pay (WTP) values between dichotomous choice contingent valuation (DCCV) and discrete choice experiment (DCE) stated preference surveys of private party Grand Canyon whitewater boaters. The consistency of DCCV and DCE estimates is debated in the literature, and this study contributes to the body of work comparing the methods. Comparisons were made of mean WTP estimates for four hypothetical Colorado River flow-level scenarios. Boaters were found to most highly value mid-range flows, with very low and very high flows eliciting lower WTP estimates across both DCE and DCCV surveys. Mean WTP precision was estimated through simulation. No statistically significant differences were detected between the two methods at three of the four hypothetical flow levels.

Distribution and seasonal differences in Pacific Lamprey and Lampetra spp eDNA across 18 Puget Sound watersheds

Released April 04, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, PeerJ (6) 1-25

Carl O. Ostberg, Dorothy M. Chase, Michael C. Hayes, Jeffrey J. Duda

Lampreys have a worldwide distribution, are functionally important to ecological communities and serve significant roles in many cultures. In Pacific coast drainages of North America, lamprey populations have suffered large declines. However, lamprey population status and trends within many areas of this region are unknown and such information is needed for advancing conservation goals. We developed two quantitative PCR-based, aquatic environmental DNA (eDNA) assays for detection of Pacific Lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and Lampetra spp, using locked nucleic acids (LNAs) in the probe design. We used these assays to characterize the spatial distribution of lamprey in 18 watersheds of Puget Sound, Washington, by collecting water samples in spring and fall. Pacific Lamprey and Lampetraspp were each detected in 14 watersheds and co-occurred in 10 watersheds. Lamprey eDNA detection rates were much higher in spring compared to fall. Specifically, the Pacific Lamprey eDNA detection rate was 3.5 times higher in spring and the Lampetra spp eDNA detection rate was 1.5 times higher in spring even though larval lamprey are present in streams year-round. This significant finding highlights the importance of seasonality on eDNA detection. Higher stream discharge in the fall likely contributed to reduced eDNA detection rates, although seasonal life history events may have also contributed. These eDNA assays differentiate Pacific Lamprey and Lampetra spp across much of their range along the west coast of North America. Sequence analysis indicates the Pacific Lamprey assay also targets other Entosphenus spp and indicates the Lampetra spp assay may have limited or no capability of detecting Lampetra in some locations south of the Columbia River Basin. Nevertheless, these assays will serve as a valuable tool for resource managers and have direct application to lamprey conservation efforts, such as mapping species distributions, occupancy modeling, and monitoring translocations and reintroductions.

N-mix for fish: estimating riverine salmonid habitat selection via N-mixture models

Released April 04, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Nicholas A. Som, Russell W. Perry, Edward C. Jones, Kyle De Juilio, Paul Petros, William D. Pinnix, Derek L. Rupert

Models that formulate mathematical linkages between fish use and habitat characteristics are applied for many purposes. For riverine fish, these linkages are often cast as resource selection functions with variables including depth and velocity of water and distance to nearest cover. Ecologists are now recognizing the role that detection plays in observing organisms, and failure to account for imperfect detection can lead to spurious inference. Herein, we present a flexible N-mixture model to associate habitat characteristics with the abundance of riverine salmonids that simultaneously estimates detection probability. Our formulation has the added benefits of accounting for demographics variation and can generate probabilistic statements regarding intensity of habitat use. In addition to the conceptual benefits, model application to data from the Trinity River, California, yields interesting results. Detection was estimated to vary among surveyors, but there was little spatial or temporal variation. Additionally, a weaker effect of water depth on resource selection is estimated than that reported by previous studies not accounting for detection probability. N-mixture models show great promise for applications to riverine resource selection.

A laboratory-calibrated model of coho salmon growth with utility for ecological analyses

Released April 04, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Christopher V. Manhard, Nicholas A. Som, Russell W. Perry, John M. Plumb

We conducted a meta-analysis of laboratory- and hatchery-based growth data to estimate broadly applicable parameters of mass- and temperature-dependent growth of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Following studies of other salmonid species, we incorporated the Ratkowsky growth model into an allometric model and fit this model to growth observations from eight studies spanning ten different populations. To account for changes in growth patterns with food availability, we reparameterized the Ratkowsky model to scale several of its parameters relative to ration. The resulting model was robust across a wide range of ration allocations and experimental conditions, accounting for 99% of the variation in final body mass. We fit this model to growth data from coho salmon inhabiting tributaries and constructed ponds in the Klamath Basin by estimating habitat-specific indices of food availability. The model produced evidence that constructed ponds provided higher food availability than natural tributaries. Because of their simplicity (only mass and temperature are required as inputs) and robustness, ration-varying Ratkowsky models have utility as an ecological tool for capturing growth in freshwater fish populations.

Relating river discharge and water temperature to the recruitment of age‐0 White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) in the Columbia River using over‐dispersed catch data

Released April 04, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Applied Ichthyology (34) 279-289

Timothy D. Counihan, Colin G. Chapman

The goals were to (i) determine if river discharge and water temperature during various early life history stages were predictors of age‐0 White Sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, recruitment, and (ii) provide an example of how over‐dispersed catch data, including data with many zero observations, can be used to better understand the effects of regulated rivers on the productivity of depressed sturgeon populations. An information theoretic approach was used to develop and select negative binomial and zero‐inflated negative binomial models that model the relation of age‐0 White Sturgeon survey data from three contiguous Columbia River reservoirs to river discharge and water temperature during spawning, egg incubation, larval, and post‐larval phases. Age‐0 White Sturgeon were collected with small mesh gill nets in The Dalles and John Day reservoirs from 1997 to 2014 and a bottom trawl in Bonneville Reservoir from 1989 to 2006. Results suggest that seasonal river discharge was positively correlated with age‐0 recruitment; notably that discharge, 16 June–31 July was positively correlated to age‐0 recruitment in all three reservoirs. The best approximating models for two of the three reservoirs also suggest that seasonal water temperature may be a determinant of age‐0 recruitment. Our research demonstrates how over‐dispersed catch data can be used to better understand the effects of environmental conditions on sturgeon populations caused by the construction and operation of dams.

Herbivory and eutrophication mediate grassland plant nutrient responses across a global climatic gradient

Released April 04, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Ecology (99) 822-831

T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schütz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren Sullivan, Peter Wragg, Elizabeth T. Borer

Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and atmospheric N deposition emerged as strong predictors of plot‐level tissue nutrients, mediated by biomass and plant chemistry. Within sites, fertilization increased total plant nutrient pools, but results were contingent on soil fertility and the proportion of grass biomass relative to other functional types. Total plant nutrient pools diverged strongly in response to herbivore exclusion when fertilized; responses were largest in ungrazed plots at low rainfall, whereas herbivore grazing dampened the plant community nutrient responses to fertilization. Our study highlights (1) the importance of climate in determining plant nutrient concentrations mediated through effects on plant biomass, (2) that eutrophication affects grassland nutrient pools via both soil and atmospheric pathways and (3) that interactions among soils, herbivores and eutrophication drive plant nutrient responses at small scales, especially at water‐limited sites.

Biological and ecological science for Michigan—The Great Lakes State

Released April 04, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Fact Sheet 2018-3012

U.S. Geological Survey

Michigan is rich in lakes, rivers, dune and rocky shorelines, forests, fish and wildlife, and has the longest freshwater coastline in the United States, 3,224 miles. Many enterprises critical to Michigan’s economy and cultural heritage are based on natural resources including commercial and sport fishing, hunting, and other outdoor recreation. Overall, outdoor recreation is enjoyed by more than 63 percent of Michigan residents, and has been estimated to generate $18.7 billion in consumer spending, create 194,000 jobs, and raise $1.4 billion in State and local tax revenue annually.

Barrier-island and estuarine-wetland physical-change assessment after Hurricane Sandy

Released April 03, 2018 10:15 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2017-1157

Nathaniel G. Plant, Kathryn E.L. Smith, Davina L. Passeri, Christopher G. Smith, Julie C. Bernier

Introduction

The Nation’s eastern coast is fringed by beaches, dunes, barrier islands, wetlands, and bluffs. These natural coastal barriers provide critical benefits and services, and can mitigate the impact of storms, erosion, and sea-level rise on our coastal communities. Waves and storm surge resulting from Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall along the New Jersey coast on October 29, 2012, impacted the U.S. coastline from North Carolina to Massachusetts, including Assateague Island, Maryland and Virginia, and the Delmarva coastal system. The storm impacts included changes in topography, coastal morphology, geology, hydrology, environmental quality, and ecosystems.

In the immediate aftermath of the storm, light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys from North Carolina to New York documented storm impacts to coastal barriers, providing a baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The focus of much of the existing coastal change assessment is along the ocean-facing coastline; however, much of the coastline affected by Hurricane Sandy includes the estuarine-facing coastlines of barrier-island systems. Specifically, the wetland and back-barrier shorelines experienced substantial change as a result of wave action and storm surge that occurred during Hurricane Sandy (see also USGS photograph, http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/sandy/photo-comparisons/virginia.php). Assessing physical shoreline and wetland change (land loss as well as land gains) can help to determine the resiliency of wetland systems that protect adjacent habitat, shorelines, and communities.

To address storm impacts to wetlands, a vulnerability assessment should describe both long-term (for example, several decades) and short-term (for example, Sandy’s landfall) extent and character of the interior wetlands and the back-barrier-shoreline changes. The objective of this report is to describe several new wetland vulnerability assessments based on the detailed physical changes estimated from observations. The scope includes understanding changes caused by both short- and long-term processes using both remotely sensed and in situ observations to characterize changes to the wetland in terms of accretion/expansion and erosion/contraction. Accretion may be due to net vertical and (or) horizontal deposition, including estuarine-shoreline change due to overwash. Wetland erosion may be due to elevated waves and water levels in the estuary itself. We included additional information based on wave runup and storm-surge elevations based on models and elevation data. We then developed a predictive assessment for wetland vulnerability that describes the likelihood of changes of the estuarine shoreline and the landward extent of sand overwash driven by processes occurring on the ocean-facing shoreline. This assessment is intended to be linked to the beach and dune vulnerability assessments that have been developed previously.

Skeletal injuries in small mammals: a multispecies assessment of prevalence and location

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Mammalogy (99) 486-497

Ryan B. Stephens, Christopher B. Burke, Neal Woodman, Lily B. Poland, Rebecca J. Rowe

Wild mammals are known to survive injuries that result in skeletal abnormalities. Quantifying and comparing skeletal injuries among species can provide insight into the factors that cause skeletal injuries and enable survival following an injury. We documented the prevalence and location of structural bone abnormalities in a community of 7 small mammal species inhabiting the White Mountains of New Hampshire. These species differ in locomotion type and levels of intraspecific aggression. Overall, the majority of injuries were to the ribs or caudal vertebrae. Incidence of skeletal injuries was highest in older animals, indicating that injuries accumulate over a lifetime. Compared to species with ambulatory locomotion, those with more specialized (semi-fossorial, saltatorial, and scansorial) locomotion exhibited fewer skeletal abnormalities in the arms and legs, which we hypothesize is a result of a lesser ability to survive limb injuries. Patterns of skeletal injuries in shrews (Soricidae) were consistent with intraspecific aggression, particularly in males, whereas skeletal injuries in rodents (Rodentia) were more likely accidental or resulting from interactions with predators. Our results demonstrate that both the incidence and pattern of skeletal injuries vary by species and suggest that the ability of an individual to survive a specific skeletal injury depends on its severity and location as well as the locomotor mode of the species involved.

Disentangling the effects of low pH and metal mixture toxicity on macroinvertebrate diversity

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Environmental Pollution (235) 889-898

Riccardo Fornaroli, Alessio Ippolito, Mari J. Tolkkinen, Heikki Mykrä, Timo Muotka, Laurie S. Balistrieri, Travis S. Schmidt

One of the primary goals of biological assessment of streams is to identify which of a suite of chemical stressors is limiting their ecological potential. Elevated metal concentrations in streams are often associated with low pH, yet the effects of these two potentially limiting factors of freshwater biodiversity are rarely considered to interact beyond the effects of pH on metal speciation. Using a dataset from two continents, a biogeochemical model of the toxicity of metal mixtures (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and quantile regression, we addressed the relative importance of both pH and metals as limiting factors for macroinvertebrate communities. Current environmental quality standards for metals proved to be protective of stream macroinvertebrate communities and were used as a starting point to assess metal mixture toxicity. A model of metal mixture toxicity accounting for metal interactions was a better predictor of macroinvertebrate responses than a model considering individual metal toxicity. We showed that the direct limiting effect of pH on richness was of the same magnitude as that of chronic metal toxicity, independent of its influence on the availability and toxicity of metals. By accounting for the direct effect of pH on macroinvertebrate communities, we were able to determine that acidic streams supported less diverse communities than neutral streams even when metals were below no-effect thresholds. Through a multivariate quantile model, we untangled the limiting effect of both pH and metals and predicted the maximum diversity that could be expected at other sites as a function of these variables. This model can be used to identify which of the two stressors is more limiting to the ecological potential of running waters.

Quantifying differences in responses of aquatic insects to trace metal exposure in field studies and short-term stream mesocosm experiments

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Environmental Science & Technology (52) 4378-4384

Yuichi Iwasaki, Travis S. Schmidt, William H. Clements

Characterizing macroinvertebrate taxa as either sensitive or tolerant is of critical importance for investigating impacts of anthropogenic stressors in aquatic ecosystems and for inferring causality. However, our understanding of relative sensitivity of aquatic insects to metals in the field and under controlled conditions in the laboratory or mesocosm experiments is limited. In this study, we compared the response of 16 lotic macroinvertebrate families to metals in short-term (10-day) stream mesocosm experiments and in a spatially extensive field study of 154 Colorado streams. Comparisons of field and mesocosm-derived EC20 (effect concentration of 20%) values showed that aquatic insects were generally more sensitive to metals in the field. Although the ranked sensitivity to metals was similar for many families, we observed large differences between field and mesocosm responses for some groups (e.g., Baetidae and Heptageniidae). These differences most likely resulted from the inability of short-term experiments to account for factors such as dietary exposure to metals, rapid recolonization in the field, and effects of metals on sensitive life stages. Understanding mechanisms responsible for differences among field, mesocosm, and laboratory approaches would improve our ability to predict contaminant effects and establish ecologically meaningful water-quality criteria.

Occupancy in community-level studies

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Book chapter, Occupancy estimation and modeling (Second edition)

Darryl I. MacKenzie, James Nichols, Andy Royle, Kenneth H. Pollock, Larissa L. Bailey, James Hines

Another type of multi-species studies, are those focused on community-level metrics such as species richness. In this chapter we detail how some of the single-species occupancy models described in earlier chapters have been applied, or extended, for use in such studies, while accounting for imperfect detection. We highlight how Bayesian methods using MCMC are particularly useful in such settings to easily calculate relevant community-level summaries based on presence/absence data. These modeling approaches can be used to assess richness at a single point in time, or to investigate changes in the species pool over time.

Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Book chapter, Aeroecology

Jeffrey J. Buler, Wylie Barrow, Matthew Boone, Deanna K. Dawson, Robert H. Diehl, Frank R. Moore, Lori A. Randall, Timothy Schreckengost, Jaclyn A. Smolinsky

Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

On the sensitivity of annual streamflow to air temperature

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Water Resources Research

Paul C.D. Milly, Jonghun Kam, Krista A. Dunne

Although interannual streamflow variability is primarily a result of precipitation variability, temperature also plays a role. The relative weakness of the temperature effect at the annual time scale hinders understanding, but may belie substantial importance on climatic time scales. Here we develop and evaluate a simple theory relating variations of streamflow and evapotranspiration (E) to those of precipitation (P) and temperature. The theory is based on extensions of the Budyko water‐balance hypothesis, the Priestley‐Taylor theory for potential evapotranspiration ( urn:x-wiley:00431397:media:wrcr23194:wrcr23194-math-0001), and a linear model of interannual basin storage. The theory implies that the temperature affects streamflow by modifying evapotranspiration through a Clausius‐Clapeyron‐like relation and through the sensitivity of net radiation to temperature. We apply and test (1) a previously introduced “strong” extension of the Budyko hypothesis, which requires that the function linking temporal variations of the evapotranspiration ratio (E/P) and the index of dryness ( urn:x-wiley:00431397:media:wrcr23194:wrcr23194-math-0002/P) at an annual time scale is identical to that linking interbasin variations of the corresponding long‐term means, and (2) a “weak” extension, which requires only that the annual evapotranspiration ratio depends uniquely on the annual index of dryness, and that the form of that dependence need not be known a priori nor be identical across basins. In application of the weak extension, the readily observed sensitivity of streamflow to precipitation contains crucial information about the sensitivity to potential evapotranspiration and, thence, to temperature. Implementation of the strong extension is problematic, whereas the weak extension appears to capture essential controls of the temperature effect efficiently.

Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Global Change Biology

Bryan A. Black, Peter van der Sleen, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Daniel Griffin, William J. Sydeman, Jason B. Dunham, Ryan R. Rykaczewski, Marisol Garcia-Reyes, Mohammad Safeeq, Ivan Arismendi, Steven J. Bograd

Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we show that over the past century the degree and spatial extent of this covariance (synchrony) has substantially increased, and is coincident with rising variance in the winter NPH. Furthermore, centuries‐long blue oak (Quercus douglasii) growth chronologies sensitive to the winter NPH provide robust evidence that modern levels of synchrony are among the highest observed in the context of the last 250 years. These trends may ultimately be linked to changing impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on mid‐latitude ecosystems of North America. Such a rise in synchrony may destabilize ecosystems, expose populations to higher risks of extinction, and is thus a concern given the broad biological relevance of winter climate to biological systems.

The GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM4.0/LM4.0: 2. Model description, sensitivity studies, and tuning strategies

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems

M. Zhao, J.-C. Golaz, I. M. Held, H. Guo, V. Balaji, R. Benson, J.-H. Chen, X. Chen, L. J. Donner, J. P. Dunne, Krista A. Dunne, J. Durachta, S.-M. Fan, S. M. Freidenreich, S. T. Garner, P. Ginoux, L. M. Harris, L. W. Horowitz, J. P. Krasting, A. R. Langenhorst, Z. Liang, P. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S. L. Malyshev, E. Mason, Paul C.D. Milly, Y. Ming, V. Naik, F. Paulot, D. Paynter, P. Phillipps, A. Radhakrishnan, V. Ramaswamy, T. Robinson, D. Schwarzkopf, C. J. Seman, E. Shevliakova, Z. Shen, H. Shin, L. Silvers, J. R. Wilson, M. Winton, A. T. Wittenberg, B. Wyman, B. Xiang

In Part 2 of this two‐part paper, documentation is provided of key aspects of a version of the AM4.0/LM4.0 atmosphere/land model that will serve as a base for a new set of climate and Earth system models (CM4 and ESM4) under development at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The quality of the simulation in AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) mode has been provided in Part 1. Part 2 provides documentation of key components and some sensitivities to choices of model formulation and values of parameters, highlighting the convection parameterization and orographic gravity wave drag. The approach taken to tune the model's clouds to observations is a particular focal point. Care is taken to describe the extent to which aerosol effective forcing and Cess sensitivity have been tuned through the model development process, both of which are relevant to the ability of the model to simulate the evolution of temperatures over the last century when coupled to an ocean model.

The GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM4.0/LM4.0: 1. Simulation characteristics with prescribed SSTs

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems

M. Zhao, J.-C. Golaz, I. M. Held, H. Guo, V. Balaji, R. Benson, J.-H. Chen, X. Chen, L. J. Donner, J. P. Dunne, Krista A. Dunne, J. Durachta, S.-M. Fan, S. M. Freidenreich, S. T. Garner, P. Ginoux, L. M. Harris, L. W. Horowitz, J. P. Krasting, A. R. Langenhorst, Z. Liang, P. Lin, S.-J. Lin, S. L. Malyshev, E. Mason, Paul C.D. Milly, Y. Ming, V. Naik, F. Paulot, D. Paynter, P. Phillipps, A. Radhakrishnan, V. Ramaswamy, T. Robinson, D. Schwarzkopf, C. J. Seman, E. Shevliakova, Z. Shen, H. Shin, L. Silvers, J. R. Wilson, M. Winton, A. T. Wittenberg, B. Wyman, B. Xiang

In this two‐part paper, a description is provided of a version of the AM4.0/LM4.0 atmosphere/land model that will serve as a base for a new set of climate and Earth system models (CM4 and ESM4) under development at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). This version, with roughly 100 km horizontal resolution and 33 levels in the vertical, contains an aerosol model that generates aerosol fields from emissions and a “light” chemistry mechanism designed to support the aerosol model but with prescribed ozone. In Part 1, the quality of the simulation in AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) mode—with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea‐ice distribution—is described and compared with previous GFDL models and with the CMIP5 archive of AMIP simulations. The model's Cess sensitivity (response in the top‐of‐atmosphere radiative flux to uniform warming of SSTs) and effective radiative forcing are also presented. In Part 2, the model formulation is described more fully and key sensitivities to aspects of the model formulation are discussed, along with the approach to model tuning.

The aerosphere as a network connector of organisms and their diseases

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Book chapter, Aeroecology

Jeremy D. Ross, Eli S. Bridge, Diann J. Prosser, John Y. Takekawa

Aeroecological processes, especially powered flight of animals, can rapidly connect biological communities across the globe. This can have profound consequences for evolutionary diversification, energy and nutrient transfers, and the spread of infectious diseases. The latter is of particular consequence for human populations, since migratory birds are known to host diseases which have a history of transmission into domestic poultry or even jumping to human hosts. In this chapter, we present a scenario under which a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain enters North America from East Asia via post-molting waterfowl migration. We use an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate the movement and disease transmission among 106 generalized waterfowl agents originating from ten molting locations in eastern Siberia, with the HPAI seeded in only ~102 agents at one of these locations. Our ABM tracked the disease dynamics across a very large grid of sites as well as individual agents, allowing us to examine the spatiotemporal patterns of change in virulence of the HPAI infection as well as waterfowl host susceptibility to the disease. We concurrently simulated a 12-station disease monitoring network in the northwest USA and Canada in order to assess the potential efficacy of these sites to detect and confirm the arrival of HPAI. Our findings indicated that HPAI spread was initially facilitated but eventually subdued by the migration of host agents. Yet, during the 90-day simulation, selective pressures appeared to have distilled the HPAI strain to its most virulent form (i.e., through natural selection), which was counterbalanced by the host susceptibility being conversely reduced (i.e., through genetic predisposition and acquired immunity). The monitoring network demonstrated wide variation in the utility of sites; some were clearly better at providing early warnings of HPAI arrival, while sites further from the disease origin exposed the selective dynamics which slowed the spread of the disease albeit with the result of passing highly virulent strains into southern wintering locales (where human impacts are more likely). Though the ABM presented had generalized waterfowl migration and HPAI disease dynamics, this exercise demonstrates the power of such simulations to examine the extremely large and complex processes which comprise aeroecology. We offer insights into how such models could be further parameterized to represent HPAI transmission risks as well as how ABMs could be applied to other aeroecological questions pertaining to individual-based connectivity.

An epidemiological model of virus transmission in salmonid fishes of the Columbia River Basin

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Ecological Modelling (377) 1-15

Paige F. B. Ferguson, Rachel Breyta, Ilana L. Brito, Gael Kurath, Shannon L. LaDeau

We have developed a dynamic epidemiological model informed by records of viral presence and genotypes to evaluate potential transmission routes maintaining a viral pathogen in economically and culturally important anadromous fish populations. In the Columbia River Basin, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes severe disease, predominantly in juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and less frequently in Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Mortality events following IHNV infection can be devastating for individual hatchery programs. Despite reports of high local mortality and extensive surveillance efforts, there are questions about how viral transmission is maintained. Modeling this system offers important insights into disease transmission in natural aquatic systems, as well as about the data requirements for generating accurate estimates about transmission routes and infection probabilities. We simulated six scenarios in which testing rates and the relative importance of different transmission routes varied. The simulations demonstrated that the model accurately identified routes of transmission and inferred infection probabilities accurately when there was testing of all cohort-sites. When testing records were incomplete, the model accurately inferred which transmission routes exposed particular cohort-sites but generated biased infection probabilities given exposure. After validating the model and generating guidelines for result interpretation, we applied the model to data from 14 annual cohorts (2000–2013) at 24 focal sites in a sub-region of the Columbia River Basin, the lower Columbia River (LCR), to quantify the relative importance of potential transmission routes in this focal sub-region. We demonstrate that exposure to IHNV via the return migration of adult fish is an important route for maintaining IHNV in the LCR sub-region, and the probability of infection following this exposure was relatively high at 0.16. Although only 1% of cohort-sites experienced self-exposure by infected juvenile fish, this transmission route had the greatest probability of infection (0.22). Increased testing and/or determining whether transmission can occur from cohort-sites without testing records (e.g., determining there was no testing record because there were no fish at the cohort-site) are expected to improve inference about infection probabilities. Increased use of secure water supplies and continued use of biosecurity protocols may reduce IHNV transmission from adult fish and juvenile fish within the site, respectively, to juvenile salmonids at hatcheries. Models and conclusions from this study are potentially relevant to understanding the relative importance of transmission routes for other important aquatic pathogens in salmonids, including the agents of bacterial kidney disease and coldwater disease, and the basic approach may be useful for other pathogens and hosts in other geographic regions.

Size‐assortative choice and mate availability influences hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans)

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Ecology and Evolution

Joseph W. Hinton, John L. Gittleman, Frank T. van Manen, Michael J. Chamberlain

Anthropogenic hybridization of historically isolated taxa has become a primary conservation challenge for many imperiled species. Indeed, hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) poses a significant challenge to red wolf recovery. We considered seven hypotheses to assess factors influencing hybridization between red wolves and coyotes via pair‐bonding between the two species. Because long‐term monogamy and defense of all‐purpose territories are core characteristics of both species, mate choice has long‐term consequences. Therefore, red wolves may choose similar‐sized mates to acquire partners that behave similarly to themselves in the use of space and diet. We observed multiple factors influencing breeding pair formation by red wolves and found that most wolves paired with similar‐sized conspecifics and wolves that formed congeneric pairs with nonwolves (coyotes and hybrids) were mostly female wolves, the smaller of the two sexes. Additionally, we observed that lower red wolf abundance relative to nonwolves and the absence of helpers increased the probability that wolves consorted with nonwolves. However, successful pairings between red wolves and nonwolves were associated with wolves that maintained small home ranges. Behaviors associated with territoriality are energetically demanding and behaviors (e.g., aggressive interactions, foraging, and space use) involved in maintaining territories are influenced by body size. Consequently, we propose the hypothesis that size disparities between consorting red wolves and coyotes influence positive assortative mating and may represent a reproductive barrier between the two species. We offer that it may be possible to maintain wild populations of red wolves in the presence of coyotes if management strategies increase red wolf abundance on the landscape by mitigating key threats, such as human‐caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes. Increasing red wolf abundance would likely restore selection pressures that increase mean body and home‐range sizes of red wolves and decrease hybridization rates via reduced occurrence of congeneric pairs.

Passage survival of juvenile steelhead, coho salmon, and Chinook salmon in Lake Scanewa and at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Cowlitz River, Washington, 2010–16

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1050

Theresa L. Liedtke, Tobias J. Kock, William Hurst

A multi-year evaluation was conducted during 2010–16 to evaluate passage survival of juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) in Lake Scanewa, and at Cowlitz Falls Dam in the upper Cowlitz River Basin, Washington. Reservoir passage survival was evaluated in 2010, 2011, and 2016, and included the tagging and release of 1,127 juvenile salmonids. Tagged fish were released directly into the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers, 22.3 and 8.9 km, respectively, upstream of the reservoir, and were monitored as they moved downstream into, and through the reservoir. A single release-recapture survival model was used to analyze detection records and estimate reservoir passage survival, which was defined as successful passage from reservoir entry to arrival at Cowlitz Falls Dam. Tagged fish generally moved quickly downstream of the release sites and, on average, arrived in the dam forebay within 2 d of release. Median travel time from release to first detection at the dam ranged from 0.23 to 0.96 d for juvenile steelhead, from 0.15 to 1.11 d for juvenile coho salmon, and from 0.18 to 1.89 d for juvenile Chinook salmon. Minimum reservoir passage survival probabilities were 0.960 for steelhead, 0.855 for coho salmon and 0.900 for Chinook salmon.

Dam passage survival was evaluated at the pilot-study level during 2013–16 and included the tagging and release of 2,512 juvenile salmonids. Juvenile Chinook salmon were evaluated during 2013–14, and juvenile steelhead and coho salmon were evaluated during 2015–16. A paired-release study design was used that included release sites located upstream and downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam. The downstream release site was positioned at the downstream margin of the dam’s tailrace, which allowed dam passage survival to be measured in a manner that included mortality that occurred in the passage route and in the dam tailrace. More than one-half of the tagged Chinook salmon (52 percent) released upstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam moved downstream and passed the project; the remaining fish either remained upstream of the dam (37 percent) or were collected (11 percent). In 2015 and 2016, collection efficiencies at Cowlitz Falls Dam were abnormally high for juvenile steelhead and coho salmon, which resulted in few fish passing the dam. Seven percent of the tagged steelhead (40 fish) and 4 percent of the tagged coho salmon (18 fish) released upstream of the dam eventually passed the project, but these low numbers of fish precluded the estimation of meaningful survival estimates. Dam passage survival probability estimates for juvenile Chinook salmon were 0.828 in 2013 and 0.861 in 2014, lower than previously reported for turbine-specific passage Cowlitz Falls Dam.

Hydrologic assessment and numerical simulation of groundwater flow, San Juan Mine, San Juan County, New Mexico, 2010–13

Released April 03, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2017-5155

Anne M. Stewart

Coal combustion byproducts (CCBs), which are composed of fly ash, bottom ash, and flue gas desulfurization material, produced at the coal-fired San Juan Generating Station (SJGS), located in San Juan County, New Mexico, have been buried in former surface-mine pits at the San Juan Mine, also referred to as the San Juan Coal Mine, since operations began in the early 1970s. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Mining and Minerals Division of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, describes results of a hydrogeologic assessment, including numerical groundwater modeling, to identify the timing of groundwater recovery and potential pathways for groundwater transport of metals that may be leached from stored CCBs and reach hydrologic receptors after operations cease. Data collected for the hydrologic assessment indicate that groundwater in at least one centrally located reclaimed surface-mining pit has already begun to recover.

The U.S. Geological Survey numerical modeling package MODFLOW–NWT was used with MODPATH particle-tracking software to identify advective flow paths from CCB storage areas toward potential hydrologic receptors. Results indicate that groundwater at CCB storage areas will recover to the former steady state, or in some locations, groundwater may recover to a new steady state in 6,600 to 10,600 years at variable rates depending on the proximity to a residual cone-of-groundwater depression caused by mine dewatering and regional oil and gas pumping as well as on actual, rather than estimated, groundwater recharge and evapotranspirational losses. Advective particle-track modeling indicates that the number of particles and rates of advective transport will vary depending on hydraulic properties of the mine spoil, particularly hydraulic conductivity and porosity. Modeling results from the most conservative scenario indicate that particles can migrate from CCB repositories to either the Shumway Arroyo alluvium after 1,320 years and from there to the San Juan River alluvium after 1,520 years or from southernmost CCB repositories directly to the San Juan River alluvium after 2,400 years after the cessation of mining.

Data analysis considerations for pesticides determined by National Water Quality Laboratory schedule 2437

Released April 02, 2018 14:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5007

Megan E. Shoda, Lisa H. Nowell, Wesley W. Stone, Mark W. Sandstrom, Laura M. Bexfield

In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) made a new method available for the analysis of pesticides in filtered water samples: laboratory schedule 2437. Schedule 2437 is an improvement on previous analytical methods because it determines the concentrations of 225 fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and associated degradates in one method at similar or lower concentrations than previously available methods. Additionally, the pesticides included in schedule 2437 were strategically identified in a prioritization analysis that assessed likelihood of occurrence, prevalence of use, and potential toxicity. When the NWQL reports pesticide concentrations for analytes in schedule 2437, the laboratory also provides supplemental information useful to data users for assessing method performance and understanding data quality. That supplemental information is discussed in this report, along with an initial analysis of analytical recovery of pesticides in water-quality samples analyzed by schedule 2437 during 2013–2015. A total of 523 field matrix spike samples and their paired environmental samples and 277 laboratory reagent spike samples were analyzed for this report (1,323 samples total). These samples were collected in the field as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment groundwater and surface-water studies and as part of the NWQL quality-control program. This report reviews how pesticide samples are processed by the NWQL, addresses how to obtain all the data necessary to interpret pesticide concentrations, explains the circumstances that result in a reporting level change or the occurrence of a raised reporting level, and describes the calculation and assessment of recovery. This report also discusses reasons why a data user might choose to exclude data in an interpretive analysis and outlines the approach used to identify the potential for decreased data quality in the assessment of method recovery. The information provided in this report is essential to understanding pesticide data determined by schedule 2437 and should be reviewed before interpretation of these data.

James Dwight Dana and John Strong Newberry in the US Pacific Northwest: The roots of American fluvialism

Released April 02, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Geology (126) 229-247

Jim E. O'Connor

Recognition of the power of rivers to carve landscapes transformed geology and geomorphology in the late nineteenth century. Wide acceptance of this concept—then known as “fluvialism”—owes to many factors and people, several associated with exploration of western North America. Especially famous are the federal geographic and geologic surveys of the US Southwest with John Wesley Powell and Grove Karl Gilbert, which produced key insights regarding river processes. Yet earlier and less-known surveys also engaged young geologists embarking on tremendously influential careers, particularly the 1838–1842 US Exploring Expedition with James Dwight Dana and the 1853–1855 railroad surveys including John Strong Newberry. Informed but little constrained by European and British perspectives on landscape formation, Dana and Newberry built compelling cases for the erosive power of rivers, largely from observations in the US Pacific Northwest. They seeded the insights of the later southwestern surveys, Dana by his writings and station at Yale and his hugely influential Manual of Geology, published in 1863, and Newberry by becoming the first geologist to explore the dramatic river-carved canyons of the Southwest and then a forceful proponent of the federal surveys spotlighting the erosional landscapes. Newberry also gave Gilbert his start as a geologist. Although Dana and Newberry are renowned early American geologists, their geomorphic contributions were overshadowed by the works of Powell, Gilbert, and William Morris Davis. Yet Dana and Newberry were the first ardent American proponents of fluvialism, providing strong roots that in just a few decades transformed western geology, roots nourished in large measure by the geologically fertile landscapes of the US Pacific Northwest.

Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville flood

Released April 02, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Hydrology (561) 1-15

José M. Abril-Hernández, Raúl Periáñez, Jim E. O'Connor, Daniel Garcia-Castellanos

At approximately 18.0 ka, pluvial Lake Bonneville reached its maximum level. At its northeastern extent it was impounded by alluvium of the Marsh Creek Fan, which breached at some point north of Red Rock Pass (Idaho), leading to one of the largest floods on Earth. About 5320 km3 of water was discharged into the Snake River drainage and ultimately into the Columbia River. We use a 0D model and a 2D non-linear depth-averaged hydrodynamic model to aid understanding of outflow dynamics, specifically evaluating controls on the amount of water exiting the Lake Bonneville basin exerted by the Red Rock Pass outlet lithology and geometry as well as those imposed by the internal lake geometry of the Bonneville basin. These models are based on field evidence of prominent lake levels, hypsometry and terrain elevations corrected for post-flood isostatic deformation of the lake basin, as well as reconstructions of the topography at the outlet for both the initial and final stages of the flood. Internal flow dynamics in the northern Lake Bonneville basin during the flood were affected by the narrow passages separating the Cache Valley from the main body of Lake Bonneville. This constriction imposed a water-level drop of up to 2.7 m at the time of peak-flow conditions and likely reduced the peak discharge at the lake outlet by about 6%. The modeled peak outlet flow is 0.85·106 m3 s−1. Energy balance calculations give an estimate for the erodibility coefficient for the alluvial Marsh Creek divide of ∼0.005 m y−1 Pa−1.5, at least two orders of magnitude greater than for the underlying bedrock at the outlet. Computing quasi steady-state water flows, water elevations, water currents and shear stresses as a function of the water-level drop in the lake and for the sequential stages of erosion in the outlet gives estimates of the incision rates and an estimate of the outflow hydrograph during the Bonneville Flood: About 18 days would have been required for the outflow to grow from 10% to 100% of its peak value. At the time of peak flow, about 10% of the lake volume would have already exited; eroding about 1 km3 of alluvium from the outlet, and the lake level would have dropped by about 10.6 m.

Gene flow connects coastal populations of a habitat specialist, the Clapper Rail Rallus crepitans

Released April 02, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Ibis

Stephanie S. Coster, Amy B. Welsh, Gary R. Costanzo, Sergio R. Harding, James T. Anderson, Todd Katzner

Examining population genetic structure can reveal patterns of reproductive isolation or population mixing and inform conservation management. Some avian species are predicted to exhibit minimal genetic differentiation among populations as a result of the species high mobility, with habitat specialists tending to show greater fine‐scale genetic structure. To explore the relationship between habitat specialization and gene flow, we investigated the genetic structure of a saltmarsh specialist with high potential mobility across a wide geographic range of fragmented habitat. Little variation among mitochondrial sequences (620 bp from ND2) was observed among 149 individual Clapper Rails Rallus crepitans sampled along the Atlantic coast of North America, with the majority of individuals at all sampling sites sharing a single haplotype. Genotyping of nine microsatellite loci across 136 individuals revealed moderate genetic diversity, no evidence of bottlenecks, and a weak pattern of genetic differentiation that increased with geographic distance. Multivariate analyses, Bayesian clustering and an AMOVA all suggested a lack of genetic structuring across the North American Atlantic coast, with all individuals grouped into a single interbreeding population. Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed evidence of weak female philopatry and a lack of male philopatry. We conclude that high gene flow connecting populations of this habitat specialist may result from the interaction of ecological and behavioral factors that promote dispersal and limit natal philopatry and breeding‐site fidelity. As climate change threatens saltmarshes, the genetic diversity and population connectivity of Clapper Rails may promote resilience of their populations. This finding helps inform about potential fates of other similarly behaving saltmarsh specialists on the Atlantic coast.

Ancient Martian aeolian processes and palaeomorphology reconstructed from the Stimson formation on the lower slope of Aeolis Mons, Gale crater, Mars

Released April 02, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Sedimentology

Steve G. Banham, Sanjeev Gupta, David M. Rubin, Jessica A. Watkins, Dawn Y. Sumner, Kenneth S. Edgett, John P. Grotzinger, Kevin W. Lewis, Lauren Edgar, Kathryn M. Stack, Robert Barnes, Jame F. III Bell, Mackenzie D. Day, Ryan C. Ewing, Mathieu G.A. Lapotre, Nathan T. Stein, Frances Rivera-Hernandez, Ashwin R. Vasavada

Reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental context of Martian sedimentary rocks is central to studies of ancient Martian habitability and regional palaeoclimate history. This paper reports the analysis of a distinct aeolian deposit preserved in Gale crater, Mars, and evaluates its palaeomorphology, the processes responsible for its deposition, and its implications for Gale crater geological history and regional palaeoclimate. Whilst exploring the sedimentary succession cropping out on the northern flank of Aeolis Mons, Gale crater, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity encountered a decametre‐thick sandstone succession, named the Stimson formation, unconformably overlying lacustrine deposits of the Murray formation. The sandstone contains sand grains characterized by high roundness and sphericity, and cross‐bedding on the order of 1 m in thickness, separated by sub‐horizontal bounding surfaces traceable for tens of metres across outcrops. The cross‐beds are composed of uniform thickness cross‐laminations interpreted as wind‐ripple strata. Cross‐sets are separated by sub‐horizontal bounding surfaces traceable for tens of metres across outcrops that are interpreted as dune migration surfaces. Grain characteristics and presence of wind‐ripple strata indicate deposition of the Stimson formation by aeolian processes. The absence of features characteristic of damp or wet aeolian sediment accumulation indicate deposition in a dry aeolian system. Reconstruction of the palaeogeomorphology suggests that the Stimson dune field was composed largely of simple sinuous crescentic dunes with a height of ca10 m, and wavelengths of ca 150 m, with local development of complex dunes. Analysis of cross‐strata dip‐azimuths indicates that the general dune migration direction and hence net sediment transport was towards the north‐east. The juxtaposition of a dry aeolian system unconformably above the lacustrine Murray formation represents starkly contrasting palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic conditions. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that this transition records a significant break in time, with the Stimson formation being deposited after the Murray formation and stratigraphically higher Mount Sharp group rocks had been buried, lithified and subsequently eroded.

Sperm quality biomarkers complement reproductive and endocrine parameters in investigating environmental contaminants in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Lake Mead National Recreation Area

Released April 02, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Environmental Research (163) 149-164

Jill A. Jenkins, Michael R. Rosen, Rassa O. Dale, Kathy R. Echols, Leticia Torres, Carla M. Wieser, Constance A. Kersten, Steven L. Goodbred

Lake Mead National Recreational Area (LMNRA) serves as critical habitat for several federally listed species and supplies water for municipal, domestic, and agricultural use in the Southwestern U.S. Contaminant sources and concentrations vary among the sub-basins within LMNRA. To investigate whether exposure to environmental contaminants is associated with alterations in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) gamete quality and endocrine- and reproductive parameters, data were collected among sub-basins over 7 years (1999–2006). Endpoints included sperm quality parameters of motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, count, morphology, and DNA fragmentation; plasma components were vitellogenin (VTG), 17ß-estradiol, 11-keto-testosterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Fish condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and gonadal histology parameters were also measured. Diminished biomarker effects were noted in 2006, and sub-basin differences were indicated by the irregular occurrences of contaminants and by several associations between chemicals (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan) and biomarkers (e.g., plasma thyroxine, sperm motility and DNA fragmentation). By 2006, sex steroid hormone and VTG levels decreased with subsequent reduced endocrine disrupting effects. The sperm quality bioassays developed and applied with carp complemented endocrine and reproductive data, and can be adapted for use with other species.

Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variation and high heat flows

Released April 02, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Icarus (306) 214-224

Kelsi N. Singer, Michael T. Bland, Paul M. Schenk, William B. McKinnon

Viscously relaxed craters provide a window into the thermal history of Ganymede, a satellite with copious geologic signs of past high heat flows. Here we present measurements of relaxed craters in four regions for which suitable imaging exists: near Anshar Sulcus, Tiamat Sulcus, northern Marius Regio, and Ganymede's south pole. We describe a technique to measure apparent depth, or depth of the crater with respect to the surrounding terrain elevation. Measured relaxation states are compared with results from finite element modeling to constrain heat flow scenarios [see companion paper: Bland et al. (2017)]. The presence of numerous, substantially relaxed craters indicates high heat flows—in excess of 30–40 mW m−2 over 2 Gyr, with many small (<10 km in diameter) relaxed craters indicating even higher heat flows. Crater relaxation states are bimodal for some equatorial regions but not in the region studied near the south pole, which suggests regional variations in Ganymede's thermal history.

Reduced swimming performance repeatedly evolves upon loss of migration in landlocked populations of Alewife

Released April 02, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Physiological and Biochemical Zoology (91) 814-825

Jonathan P. Velotta, Stephen McCormick, Andrew W. Jones, Eric T. Schultz

Whole-organism performance tasks are accomplished by the integration of morphological traits and physiological functions. Understanding how evolutionary change in morphology and physiology influences whole-organism performance will yield insight into the factors that shape its own evolution. We demonstrate that nonmigratory populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) have evolved reduced swimming performance in parallel, compared with their migratory ancestor. In contrast to theoretically and empirically based predictions, poor swimming among nonmigratory populations is unrelated to the evolution of osmoregulation and occurs despite the fact that nonmigratory alewives have a more fusiform (torpedo-like) body shape than their ancestor. Our results suggest that elimination of long-distance migration from the life cycle has shaped performance more than changes in body shape and physiological regulatory capacity.

Common hydraulic fracturing fluid additives alter the structure and function of anaerobic microbial communities

Released April 02, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Applied and Environmental Microbiology (84) 1-16

Adam C. Mumford, Denise M. Akob, J. Grace Klinges, Isabelle M. Cozzarelli

The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in the production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. The release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron-reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and so to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) and bronopol (C3H6BrNO4). Iron reduction was significantly inhibited early in the incubations with the addition of biocides, whereas amendment with guar gum and ethylene glycol stimulated iron reduction relative to levels in the unamended controls. Changes in the microbial community structure were observed across all treatments, indicating the potential for even small amounts of UOG wastewater components to influence natural microbial processes. The microbial community structure differed between enrichments with background and impacted sediments, suggesting that impacted sediments may have been preconditioned by exposure to wastewater. These experiments demonstrated the potential for biocides to significantly decrease iron reduction rates immediately following a spill and demonstrated how microbial communities previously exposed to UOG wastewater may be more resilient to additional spills.

Trends and habitat associations of waterbirds using the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, San Francisco Bay, California

Released April 02, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1040

Susan E. W. De La Cruz, Lacy M. Smith, Stacy M. Moskal, Cheryl Strong, John Krause, Yiwei Wang, John Y. Takekawa

Executive Summary

The aim of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (hereinafter “Project”) is to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh in San Francisco Bay (SFB). However, hundreds of thousands of waterbirds use these ponds over winter and during fall and spring migration. To ensure that existing waterbird populations are supported while tidal marsh is restored in the Project area, managers plan to enhance the habitat suitability of ponds by adding islands and berms to change pond topography, manipulating water salinity and depth, and selecting appropriate ponds to maintain for birds. To help inform these actions, we used 13 years of monthly (October–April) bird abundance data from Project ponds to (1) assess trends in waterbird abundance since the inception of the Project, and (2) evaluate which pond habitat characteristics were associated with highest abundances of different avian guilds and species. For comparison, we also evaluated waterbird abundance trends in active salt production ponds using 10 years of monthly survey data.

We assessed bird guild and species abundance trends through time, and created separate trend curves for Project and salt production ponds using data from every pond that was counted in a year. We divided abundance data into three seasons—fall (October–November), winter (December–February), and spring (March–April). We used the resulting curves to assess which periods had the highest bird abundance and to identify increasing or decreasing trends for each guild and species.

Phase 1 studies summary of major findings of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

Released April 02, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1039

Laura Valoppi

Executive Summary

The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (Project) is one of the largest restoration efforts in the United States. It is located in South San Francisco Bay of California. It is unique not only for its size—more than 15,000 acres—but also for its location adjacent to one of the nation’s largest urban areas, home to more than 4 million people (Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties). The Project is intended to restore and enhance wetlands in South San Francisco Bay while providing for flood management, wildlife-oriented public access, and recreation. Restoration goals of the project are to provide a mosaic of saltmarsh habitat to benefit marsh species and managed ponds to benefit waterbirds, throughout 3 complexes and 54 former salt ponds.

Although much is known about the project area, significant uncertainties remain with a project of this geographic and temporal scale of an estimated 50 years to complete the restoration. For example, in order to convert anywhere from 50 to 90 percent of the existing managed ponds to saltmarsh habitat, conservation managers first enhance the habitat of managed ponds in order to increase use by waterbirds, and provide migratory, wintering, and nesting habitat for more than 90 species of waterbirds. Project managers have concluded that the best way to address these uncertainties is to carefully implement the project in phases and learn from the outcome of each phase. The Adaptive Management Plan (AMP) identifies specific restoration targets for multiple aspects of the Project and defines triggers that would necessitate some type of management action if a particular aspect is trending negatively. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologist Laura Valoppi served as the project Lead Scientist and oversaw implementation of the AMP in coordination with other members of the Project Management Team (PMT), comprised of representatives from the California State Coastal Conservancy, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Santa Clara Valley Water District, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

To implement the AMP, the PMT have selected and funded applied studies and monitoring projects to address key uncertainties. This information is used by the PMT to make decisions about current management of the project area and future restoration actions in order to meet project.

This document summarizes the major scientific findings from studies conducted from 2009 to 2016, as part of the science program that was conducted in conjunction with Phase 1 restoration and management actions. Additionally, this report summarizes the management response to the study results under the guidance of the AMP framework and provides a list of suggested studies to be conducted in “Phase 2–A scorecard summarizing the Project’s progress toward meeting the AMP goals for a range of Project objectives.” The scoring to date indicates that the Project is meeting or exceeding expectations for sediment accretion and western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) recovery. There is uncertainty with respect to objectives for California gulls (Larus californicus), California least tern (Sternula antillarum), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and regulatory water quality objectives. Water quality and algal blooms, specifically of the managed ponds, is indicated as trending negative. However, the vast majority of objectives are trending positive, including increased abundance for a number of bird guilds, increasing marsh habitat, maintenance of mudflats, visitor experience, estuarine fish numbers, and special-status marsh species numbers.

Genome-wide SNP data and morphology support the distinction of two new species of Kovarikia Soleglad, Fet & Graham, 2014 endemic to California (Scorpiones, Vaejovidae)

Released April 01, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, ZooKeys (739) 79-106

Robert W. Bryson Jr., Dustin A. Wood, Matthew R. Graham, Michael E. Soleglad, John E. McCormack

Morphologically conserved taxa such as scorpions represent a challenge to delimit. We recently discovered populations of scorpions in the genus Kovarikia Soleglad, Fet & Graham, 2014 on two isolated mountain ranges in southern California. We generated genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data and used Bayes factors species delimitation to compare alternative species delimitation scenarios which variously placed scorpions from the two localities with geographically adjacent species or into separate lineages. We also estimated a time-calibrated phylogeny of Kovarikia and examined and compared the morphology of preserved specimens from across its distribution. Genetic results strongly support the distinction of two new lineages, which we describe and name here. Morphology among the species of Kovarikia was relatively conserved, despite deep genetic divergences, consistent with recent studies of stenotopic scorpions with limited vagility. Phylogeographic structure discovered in several previously described species also suggests additional cryptic species are probably present in the genus.

Tropical cyclone activities: Asia Pacific Region: Chapter 6

Released April 01, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Book chapter, Exploring natural hazards: A case study approach

Lindsey M. Harriman

No abstract available.

Assessment of two external transmitter attachment methods for Boiga irregularis (Brown Treesnakes)

Released April 01, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Herpetological Review (49) 32-34

Charlotte J. Robinson, Marijoy C. Viernes, Robert Reed, Amy Yackel, Melia Nafus

No abstract available.

High pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) determination of dissolved organic matter molecular weight revisited: Accounting for changes in stationary phases, analytical standards, and isolation methods

Released April 01, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Environmental Science & Technology (52) 722-730

Brandon C. McAdams, George R. Aiken, Diane M. McKnight, William A. Arnold, Yu-Ping Chin

We reassessed the molecular weight of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) using measurements made with different columns and various generations of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) molecular weight standards. Molecular weight measurements made with a newer generation HPSEC column and PSS standards from more recent lots are roughly 200 to 400 Da lower than initial measurements made in the early 1990s. These updated numbers match DOM molecular weights measured by colligative methods and fall within a range of values calculated from hydroxyl radical kinetics. These changes suggest improved accuracy of HPSEC molecular weight measurements that we attribute to improved accuracy of PSS standards and changes in the column packing. We also isolated DOM from wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) using XAD-8, a cation exchange resin, and PPL, a styrene-divinylbenzene media, and observed little difference in molecular weight and specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA280) between the two solid phase extraction resins, suggesting they capture similar DOM moieties. PPR DOM also showed lower SUVA280 at similar weights compared to DOM isolates from a global range of environments, which we attribute to oxidized sulfur in PPR DOM that would increase molecular weight without affecting SUVA280.

Springs as hydrologic refugia in a changing climate? A remote sensing approach

Released April 01, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Ecosphere (9) 1-22

Jennifer M. Cartwright, Henry M. Johnson

Spring‐fed wetlands are ecologically important habitats in arid and semi‐arid regions. Springs have been suggested as possible hydrologic refugia from droughts and climate change; however, springs that depend on recent precipitation or snowmelt for recharge may be vulnerable to warming and drought intensification. Springs that are expected to maintain their ecohydrologic function in a warmer, drier climate may be priorities for conservation and restoration. Identifying such springs is difficult because many springs lack hydrologic records of adequate temporal extent and resolution to assess their resilience to water cycle changes. This study demonstrates proof‐of‐concept for the assessment of certain spring types (i.e., helocrene, hypocrene, and hillslope springs) in terms of hydrologic and ecological resilience to climatic water stress using freely available remote‐sensing and climate data. We used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 1985 through 2011 to delineate surface‐moisture zones (SMZs) associated with 39 clusters of 172 springs in a montane sage‐steppe landscape in southeastern Oregon, USA. We developed and synthesized seven NDVI‐based indicators of SMZ resilience to interannual changes in water availability: (1) mean and (2) standard deviation of July NDVI; (3) mean difference in July NDVI and (4) difference in coefficient of variation for July NDVI between each SMZ and its surrounding watershed; (5) response of SMZ July NDVI to 90‐day antecedent precipitation; (6) response of SMZ July NDVI to the previous winter's snowpack; and (7) range of NDVI values from an exceptionally wet year followed by three dry years. Because all resilience indicators were highly inter‐correlated, we derived an overall metric of SMZ resilience using principal components analysis that accounted for 66% of total variance. This overall resilience score was positively correlated with SMZ elevation, slope, mean annual precipitation, and with the number of associated springs. Resilience was greater for SMZs on topographically shaded, north‐facing slopes. Several high‐resilience SMZs were located immediately below persistent snowbanks, suggesting a possible source of steady recharge throughout the growing season. The approach presented here—if combined with field assessments of spring hydrogeology, discharge, and groundwater age—could help identify spring‐fed wetlands that are most likely to serve as hydrologic refugia from climate change.

Migratory behavior and physiological development as potential determinants of life history diversity in fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

Released April 01, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (147) 400-413

Kenneth F. Tiffan, Tobias J. Kock, William P. Connor, Marshall C. Richmond, William A. Perkins

We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall‐run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in both free‐flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio‐tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were higher in the free‐flowing Clearwater River than in impounded reaches. This supports the notion that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish's physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches, where water velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lowermost reach of Lower Granite Reservoir, suggesting that the behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast with those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings despite similarity in hydrodynamic conditions between the two studies. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater River migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr‐like in their development and never showed the increase in gill Na+/K+‐ATPase activity displayed by smolts from the Snake River. Results from this study provide evidence that behavioral and life history differences between Snake and Clearwater River subyearlings may have a physiological basis that is modified by environmental conditions.

Juvenile Chinook Salmon mortality in a Snake River Reservoir: Smallmouth Bass predation revisited

Released April 01, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (147) 316-328

John M. Erhardt, Kenneth F. Tiffan, William P. Connor

Predation by nonnative fishes has been identified as a contributing factor in the decline of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River basin. We examined the diet composition of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu and estimated the consumption and predation loss of juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River. We examined 4,852 Smallmouth Bass stomachs collected from shoreline habitats during April–September 2013–2015. Chinook Salmon were the second most commonly consumed fish by all size‐classes of Smallmouth Bass (≥150 mm TL) throughout the study. Over the 3 years studied, we estimated that a total of 300,373 Chinook Salmon were consumed by Smallmouth Bass in our 22‐km study area, of which 97% (291,884) were subyearlings (age 0) based on length frequency data. A majority of the loss (61%) occurred during June, which coincided with the timing of hatchery releases of subyearling fall Chinook Salmon. Compared to an earlier study, mean annual predation loss increased more than 15‐fold from 2,670 Chinook Salmon during 1996–1997 to 41,145 Chinook Salmon during 2013–2015 (in reaches that could be compared), despite lower contemporary Smallmouth Bass abundances. This increase can be explained in part by increases in Smallmouth Bass consumption rates, which paralleled increases in subyearling Chinook Salmon densities—an expected functional response by an opportunistic consumer. Smallmouth Bass are currently significant predators of subyearling Chinook Salmon in Lower Granite Reservoir and could potentially be a large source of unexplained mortality.

Size, growth, and size‐selective mortality of subyearling Chinook Salmon during early marine residence in Puget Sound

Released March 31, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (147) 370-289

Madilyn M. Gamble, Kristin A. Connelly, Jennifer R. Gardner, Joshua W. Chamberlin, Kenneth I. Warheit, David A. Beauchamp

In marine ecosystems, survival can be heavily influenced by size‐selective mortality during juvenile life stages. Understanding how and when size‐selective mortality operates on a population can reveal underlying growth dynamics and size‐selective ecological processes affecting the population and thus can be used to guide conservation efforts. For subyearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Puget Sound, previous research reported a strong positive relationship between marine survival and body mass during midsummer in epipelagic habitats within Puget Sound, suggesting that early marine growth drives survival. However, a fine‐scale analysis of size‐selective mortality is needed to identify specific critical growth periods and habitats. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe occupancy patterns across estuarine delta, nearshore marine, and offshore epipelagic habitats in Puget Sound; (2) describe changes in FL and weight observed across habitats and time; (3) evaluate evidence for size‐selective mortality; and (4) illustrate how marine survival of the stocks studied may be affected by variation in July weight. In 2014 and 2015, we sampled FLs, weights, and scales from seven hatchery‐origin and two natural‐origin stocks of subyearling Chinook Salmon captured every 2 weeks during out‐migration and rearing in estuary, nearshore, and offshore habitats within Puget Sound. Natural‐origin stocks had more protracted habitat occupancy patterns than hatchery‐origin stocks and were smaller than hatchery‐origin stocks in both years. Regardless of origin, subyearlings were longer and heavier and grew faster in offshore habitats compared to estuary and nearshore habitats. For all stocks, we found little evidence of size‐selective mortality among habitats in Puget Sound. These patterns were consistent in both years. Finally, the weights of subyearlings sampled during July in the offshore habitat predicted Puget Sound‐wide marine survival rates of 0.4% for 2014 and 2.0% for 2015, with stock‐specific predictions ranging from 0.18% to 11.70%.

Factors affecting long-term trends in surface-water quality in the Gwynns Falls watershed, Baltimore City and County, Maryland, 1998–2016

Released March 30, 2018 16:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1038

Emily H. Majcher, Ellen L. Woytowitz, Alexander J. Reisinger, Peter M. Groffman

Factors affecting water-quality trends in urban streams are not well understood, despite current regulatory requirements and considerable ongoing investments in gray and green infrastructure. To address this gap, long-term water-quality trends and factors affecting these trends were examined in the Gwynns Falls, Maryland, watershed during 1998–2016 in cooperation with Blue Water Baltimore. Data on water-quality constituents and potential factors of influence were obtained from multiple sources and compiled for analysis, with a focus on data collected as part of the National Science Foundation funded Long-Term Ecological Research project, the Baltimore Ecosystem Study.

Variability in climate (specifically, precipitation) and land cover can overwhelm actions taken to improve water quality and can present challenges for meeting regulatory goals. Analysis of land cover during 2001–11 in the Gwynns Falls watershed indicated minimal change during the study time frame; therefore, land-cover change is likely not a factor affecting trends in water quality. However, a modest increase in annual precipitation and a significant increase in winter precipitation were apparent in the region. A higher proportion of runoff producing storms was observed in the winter and a lower proportion in the summer, indicating that climate change may affect water quality in the watershed. The increase in precipitation was not reflected in annual or seasonal trends of streamflow in the watershed. Nonetheless, these precipitation changes may exacerbate the inflow and infiltration of water to gray infrastructure and reduce the effectiveness of green infrastructure. For streamflow and most water-quality constituents examined, no discernable trends were noted over the timeframe examined. Despite the increases in precipitation, no trends were observed for annual or seasonal discharge at the various sites within the study area. In some locations, nitrate, phosphate, and total nitrogen show downward trends, and total phosphorus and chloride show upward trends.

Sanitary sewer overflows (gray infrastructure) and best management practices (green infrastructure) were identified as factors affecting water-quality change. The duration of sanitary sewer overflows was positively correlated with annual loads of nutrients and bacteria, and the drainage area of best management practices was negatively correlated with annual loads of phosphate and sulfate. Results of the study indicate that continued investments in gray and green infrastructure are necessary for urban water-quality improvement. Although this outcome is not unexpected, long-term datasets such as the one used in this study, allow the effects of gray and green infrastructures to be quantified.

Results of this study have implications for the Gwynns Falls watershed and its residents and Baltimore City and County managers. Moreover, outcomes are relevant to other watersheds in the metropolitan region that do not have the same long-term dataset. Further, this study has established a framework for ongoing statistical analysis of primary factors affecting urban water-quality trends as regulatory programs mature.

One-meter topobathymetric digital elevation model for Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1944 to 2016

Released March 30, 2018 11:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5047

Monica Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Sandra K. Poppenga, Jeffrey J. Danielson, Dean J. Tyler, Dean B. Gesch, Maria Kottermair, Andrea Jalandoni, Edward Carlson, Cindy A. Thatcher, Matthew M. Barbee

Atoll and island coastal communities are highly exposed to sea-level rise, tsunamis, storm surges, rogue waves, king tides, and the occasional combination of multiple factors, such as high regional sea levels, extreme high local tides, and unusually strong wave set-up. The elevation of most of these atolls averages just under 3 meters (m), with many areas roughly at sea level. The lack of high-resolution topographic data has been identified as a critical data gap for hazard vulnerability and adaptation efforts and for high-resolution inundation modeling for atoll nations. Modern topographic survey equipment and airborne lidar surveys can be very difficult and costly to deploy. Therefore, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) were investigated for collecting overlapping imagery to generate topographic digital elevation models (DEMs). Medium- and high-resolution satellite imagery (Landsat 8 and WorldView-3) was investigated to derive nearshore bathymetry.

The Republic of the Marshall Islands is associated with the United States through a Compact of Free Association, and Majuro Atoll is home to the capital city of Majuro and the largest population of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The only elevation datasets currently available for the entire Majuro Atoll are the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 elevation data, which have a 30-m grid-cell spacing and a 8-m vertical root mean square error (RMSE). Both these datasets have inadequate spatial resolution and vertical accuracy for inundation modeling.

The final topobathymetric DEM (TBDEM) developed for Majuro Atoll is derived from various data sources including charts, soundings, acoustic sonar, and UAS and satellite imagery spanning over 70 years of data collection (1944 to 2016) on different sections of the atoll. The RMSE of the TBDEM over the land area is 0.197 m using over 70,000 Global Navigation Satellite System real-time kinematic survey points for validation, and 1.066 m for Landsat 8 and 1.112 m for WorldView-3 derived bathymetry using over 16,000 and 9,000 lidar bathymetry points, respectively.

Overview of the geologic effects of the November 14, 2016, Mw 7.8 Kaikoura, New Zealand, earthquake

Released March 30, 2018 11:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2017-5146

Randall W. Jibson, Kate E. Allstadt, Francis K. Rengers, Jonathan W. Godt

The November 14, 2016, Kaikoura, New Zealand, earthquake (moment magnitude [Mw] 7.8) triggered more than 10,000 landslides over an area of about 12,000 square kilometers in the northeastern part of the South Island of New Zealand. In collaboration with GNS Science (the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science Limited), we conducted ground and helicopter reconnaissance of the affected areas and assisted in rapid hazard evaluation. The majority of the triggered landslides were shallow- to moderate-depth (1–10 meters), highly disrupted falls and slides in rock and debris from Lower Cretaceous graywacke sandstone in the Seaward Kaikoura Range. Deeper, more coherent landslides in weak Upper Cretaceous to Neogene sedimentary rock also were numerous in the gentler topography south and inland (west) of the Seaward Kaikoura Range. The principal ground-failure hazards from the earthquake were the hundreds of valley-blocking landslides, many of which impounded lakes and ponds that posed potential downstream flooding hazards. Both large and small landslides also blocked road and rail corridors in many locations, including the main north-south highway (State Highway 1), which was still closed in October 2017. As part of our investigation, we compared post-earthquake field observations to the output of models used to estimate near-real-time landslide probabilities following earthquakes. The models generally over-predicted landslide occurrence and thus need further refinement.

Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Virology (518) 55-63

Andy M. Ramey, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Yohannes Berhane, David E. Swayne, David E. Stallknecht

Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead.

Phylogeny and species traits predict bird detectability

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Ecography

Peter Solymos, Steven M. Matsuoka, Diana Stralberg, Nicole K. S. Barker, Erin M. Bayne

Avian acoustic communication has resulted from evolutionary pressures and ecological constraints. We therefore expect that auditory detectability in birds might be predictable by species traits and phylogenetic relatedness. We evaluated the relationship between phylogeny, species traits, and field‐based estimates of the two processes that determine species detectability (singing rate and detection distance) for 141 bird species breeding in boreal North America. We used phylogenetic mixed models and cross‐validation to compare the relative merits of using trait data only, phylogeny only, or the combination of both to predict detectability. We found a strong phylogenetic signal in both singing rates and detection distances; however the strength of phylogenetic effects was less than expected under Brownian motion evolution. The evolution of behavioural traits that determine singing rates was found to be more labile, leaving more room for species to evolve independently, whereas detection distance was mostly determined by anatomy (i.e. body size) and thus the laws of physics. Our findings can help in disentangling how complex ecological and evolutionary mechanisms have shaped different aspects of detectability in boreal birds. Such information can greatly inform single‐ and multi‐species models but more work is required to better understand how to best correct possible biases in phylogenetic diversity and other community metrics.

Benthic assemblages of mega epifauna on the Oregon continental margin

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Continental Shelf Research (159) 24-32

Lenaïg G. Hemery, Sarah K. Henkel, Guy R. Cochrane

Environmental assessment studies are usually required by a country's administration before issuing permits for any industrial activities. One of the goals of such environmental assessment studies is to highlight species assemblages and habitat composition that could make the targeted area unique. A section of the Oregon continental slope that had not been previously explored was targeted for the deployment of floating wind turbines. We carried out an underwater video survey, using a towed camera sled, to describe its benthic assemblages. Organisms were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible and assemblages described related to the nature of the seafloor and the depth. We highlighted six invertebrate assemblages and three fish assemblages. For the invertebrates within flat soft sediments areas we defined three different assemblages based on primarily depth: a broad mid-depth (98–315 m) assemblage dominated by red octopus, sea pens and pink shrimps; a narrower mid-depth (250–270 m) assemblage dominated by box crabs and various other invertebrates; and a deeper (310–600 m) assemblage dominated by sea urchins, sea anemones, various snails and zoroasterid sea stars. The invertebrates on mixed sediments also were divided into three different assemblages: a shallow (~100 m deep) assemblage dominated by plumose sea anemones, broad mid-depth (170–370 m) assemblage dominated by sea cucumbers and various other invertebrates; and, again, a narrower mid-depth (230–270 m) assemblage, dominated by crinoids and encrusting invertebrates. For the fish, we identified a rockfish assemblage on coarse mixed sediments at 170–370 m and another fish assemblage on smaller mixed sediments within that depth range (250–370 m) dominated by thornyheads, poachers and flatfishes; and we identified a wide depth-range (98–600 m) fish assemblage on flat soft sediments dominated by flatfishes, eelpouts and thornyheads. Three of these assemblages (the two broad fish assemblages and the deep flat soft sediments invertebrate assemblage) seem to represent deeper examples of assemblages already known on the Oregon continental shelf, especially on soft sediments, while the assemblages in the pockmarks habitat (the narrower depth ranges) might be unique to the area. This diversity of assemblages in a relatively small section of the Oregon continental upper slope and shelf shows the importance of environmental assessment studies in helping limit future impacts of industrial activities on benthic communities.

Effects of contemporary land-use and land-cover change on the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in the United States

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Environmental Research Letters (13)

Benjamin M. Sleeter, Jinxun Liu, Colin Daniel, Bronwyn Rayfield, Jason Sherba, Todd J. Hawbaker, Zhiliang Zhu, Paul Selmants, Thomas R. Loveland

Changes in land use and land cover (LULC) can have profound effects on terrestrial carbon dynamics, yet their effects on the global carbon budget remain uncertain. While land change impacts on ecosystem carbon dynamics have been the focus of numerous studies, few efforts have been based on observational data incorporating multiple ecosystem types spanning large geographic areas over long time horizons. In this study we use a variety of synoptic-scale remote sensing data to estimate the effect of LULC changes associated with urbanization, agricultural expansion and contraction, forest harvest, and wildfire on the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems (forest, grasslands, shrublands, and agriculture) in the conterminous United States (i.e. excluding Alaska and Hawaii) between 1973 and 2010. We estimate large net declines in the area of agriculture and forest, along with relatively small increases in grasslands and shrublands. The largest net change in any class was an estimated gain of 114 865 km2 of developed lands, an average rate of 3282 km2 yr−1. On average, US ecosystems sequestered carbon at an annual rate of 254 Tg C yr−1. In forest lands, the net sink declined by 35% over the study period, largely a result of land-use legacy, increasing disturbances, and reductions in forest area due to land use conversion. Uncertainty in LULC change data contributed to a ~16% margin of error in the annual carbon sink estimate prior to 1985 (approximately ±40 Tg C yr−1). Improvements in LULC and disturbance mapping starting in the mid-1980s reduced this uncertainty by ~50% after 1985. We conclude that changes in LULC are a critical component to understanding ecosystem carbon dynamics, and continued improvements in detection, quantification, and attribution of change have the potential to significantly reduce current uncertainties.

Anthropocene landscape change and the legacy of nineteenth- and twentieth-century mining in the Fourmile Catchment, Colorado Front Range

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Annals of the American Association of Geographers

David P. Dethier, William B. Ouimet, Sheila F. Murphy, Maneh Kotikian, Will Wicherski, Rachel M. Samuels

Human impacts on earth surface processes and materials are fundamental to understanding the proposed Anthropocene epoch. This study examines the magnitude, distribution, and long-term context of nineteenth- and twentieth-century mining in the Fourmile Creek catchment, Colorado, coupling airborne LiDAR topographic analysis with historical documents and field studies of river banks exposed by 2013 flooding. Mining impacts represent the dominant Anthropocene landscape change for this basin. Mining activity, particularly placer operations, controls floodplain stratigraphy and waste rock piles related to mining cover >5% of hillslopes in the catchment. Total rates of surface disturbance on slopes from mining activities (prospecting, mining, and road building) exceed pre-nineteenth-century rates by at least fifty times. Recent flooding and the overprint of human impacts obscure the record of Holocene floodplain evolution. Stratigraphic relations indicate that the Fourmile valley floor was as much as two meters higher in the past 2,000 years and that placer reworking, lateral erosion, or minor downcutting dominated from the late Holocene to present. Concentrations of As and Au in the fine fraction of hillslope soil, mining-related deposits, and fluvial deposits serve as a geochemical marker of mining activity in the catchment; reducing As and Au values in floodplain sediment will take hundreds of years to millennia. Overall, the Fourmile Creek catchment provides a valuable example of Anthropocene landscape change for mountainous regions of the Western United States, where hillslope and floodplain markers of human activity vary, high rates of geomorphic processes affect mixing and preservation of marker deposits, and long-term impact varies by landscape location.

Mineral constraints on arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus): a spatial and phenological perspective

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Ecosphere (9)

K. W. Oster, P.S. Barboza, David D. Gustine, Kyle Joly, R. D. Shively

Arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus) have the longest terrestrial migration of any ungulate but little is known about the spatial and seasonal variation of minerals in summer forages and the potential impacts of mineral nutrition on the foraging behavior and nutritional condition of arctic caribou. We investigated the phenology, availability, and mechanistic relationships of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in three species of woody browse, three species of graminoids, and one forb preferred by caribou over two transects bisecting the ranges of the Central Arctic (CAH) and Western Arctic (WAH) caribou herds in Alaska. Transects traversed three ecoregions (Coastal Plain, Arctic Foothills and Brooks Range) along known migration paths in the summer ranges of both herds. Concentrations of mineral in forages were compared to estimated dietary requirements of lactating female caribou. Spatial distribution of the abundance of minerals in caribou forage was associated with interactions of soil pH and mineral content, while temporal variation was related to plant maturity, and thus nitrogen and fiber content of forages. Concentrations of sodium were below caribou requirements in all forage species for most of the summer and adequate only on the Coastal Plain during the second half of summer. Phosphorus declined in plants from emergence to senescence and was below requirements in all forages by mid‐summer, while concentrations of copper declined to marginal concentrations at plant senescence. Interactions of sodium with potassium, calcium with phosphorus, and copper with zinc in forages likely exacerbate the constraints of low concentrations sodium, phosphorus, and copper. Forages on the WAH contained significantly more phosphorus and copper than forages collected on the CAH transect. We suspect that migrations of caribou to the Arctic Coastal Plain may allow parturient females to replenish sodium stores depleted by foraging inland through the long arctic winters, while also extending the availability of adequate phosphorus, if animals are able to selectively track emerging waves of forage.

Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in migratory birds inhabiting remote Alaska

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, EcoHealth

Andy M. Ramey, Jorge Hernandez, Veronica Tyrlöv, Brian D. Uher-Koch, Joel A. Schmutz, Clara Atterby, Josef D. Järhult, Jonas Bonnedahl

We explored the abundance of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli among migratory birds at remote sites in Alaska and used a comparative approach to speculate on plausible explanations for differences in detection among species. At a remote island site, we detected antibiotic-resistant E. coli phenotypes in samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), a species often associated with foraging at landfills, but not in samples collected from black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a more pelagic gull that typically inhabits remote areas year-round. We did not find evidence for antibiotic-resistant E. coli among 347 samples collected primarily from waterfowl at a second remote site in western Alaska. Our results provide evidence that glaucous-winged gulls may be more likely to be infected with antibiotic-resistant E. coli at remote breeding sites as compared to sympatric black-legged kittiwakes. This could be a function of the tendency of glaucous-winged gulls to forage at landfills where antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections may be acquired and subsequently dispersed. The low overall detection of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in migratory birds sampled at remote sites in Alaska is consistent with the premise that anthropogenic inputs into the local environment or the relative lack thereof influences the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among birds inhabiting the area.

Evaluating and monitoring forest fuel treatments using remote sensing applications in Arizona, U.S.A.

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Forest Ecology and Management (413) 48-61

Roy Petrakis, Miguel Villarreal, Zhuoting Wu, Robert Hetzler, Barry R. Middleton, Laura M. Norman

The practice of fire suppression across the western United States over the past century has led to dense forests, and when coupled with drought has contributed to an increase in large and destructive wildfires. Forest management efforts aimed at reducing flammable fuels through various fuel treatments can help to restore frequent fire regimes and increase forest resilience. Our research examines how different fuel treatments influenced burn severity and post-fire vegetative stand dynamics on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, in east-central Arizona, U.S.A. Our methods included the use of multitemporal remote sensing data and cloud computing to evaluate burn severity and post-fire vegetation conditions as well as statistical analyses. We investigated how forest thinning, commercial harvesting, prescribed burning, and resource benefit burning (managed wildfire) related to satellite measured burn severity (the difference Normalized Burn Ratio – dNBR) following the 2013 Creek Fire and used spectral measures of post-fire stand dynamics to track changes in land surface characteristics (i.e., brightness, greenness and wetness). We found strong negative relationships between dNBR and post-fire greenness and wetness, and a positive non-linear relationship between dNBR and brightness, with greater variability at higher severities. Fire severity and post-fire surface changes also differed by treatment type. Our results showed harvested and thinned sites that were not treated with prescribed fire had the highest severity fire. When harvesting was followed by a prescribed burn, the sites experienced lower burn severity and reduced post-fire changes in vegetation greenness and wetness. Areas that had previously experienced resource benefit burns had the lowest burn severities and the highest post-fire greenness measurements compared to all other treatments, except for where the prescribed burn had occurred. These results suggest that fire treatments may be most effective at reducing the probability of hazardous fire and increasing post-fire recovery. This research demonstrates the utility of remote sensing and spatial data to inform forest management, and how various fuel treatments can influence burn severity and post-fire vegetation response within ponderosa pine forests across the southwestern U.S.

GIS database and discussion for the distribution, composition, and age of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1030

David R. Sherrod, Mackenzie K. Keith

A substantial part of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is underlain by Cenozoic volcanic and continental sedimentary rocks and, where widespread, these strata form important aquifers. The legacy geologic mapping presented with this report contains new thematic categorization added to state digital compilations published by the U.S. Geological Survey for Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Washington (Ludington and others, 2005). Our additional coding is designed to allow rapid characterization, mainly for hydrogeologic purposes, of similar rocks and deposits within a boundary expanded slightly beyond that of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area. To be useful for hydrogeologic analysis and to be more statistically manageable, statewide compilations from Ludington and others (2005) were mosaicked into a regional map and then reinterpreted into four main categories on the basis of (1) age, (2) composition, (3) hydrogeologic grouping, and (4) lithologic pattern. The coding scheme emphasizes Cenozoic volcanic or volcanic-related rocks and deposits, and of primary interest are the codings for composition and age.

Wave attenuation across a tidal marsh in San Francisco Bay

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Coastal Engineering (136) 26-40

Madeline R. Foster-Martinez, Jessica Lacy, Matthew C. Ferner, Evan A. Variano

Wave attenuation is a central process in the mechanics of a healthy salt marsh. Understanding how wave attenuation varies with vegetation and hydrodynamic conditions informs models of other marsh processes that are a function of wave energy (e.g. sediment transport) and allows for the incorporation of marshes into coastal protection plans. Here, we examine the evolution of wave height across a tidal salt marsh in San Francisco Bay. Instruments were deployed along a cross-shore transect, starting on the mudflat and crossing through zones dominated by Spartina foliosa and Salicornia pacifica. This dataset is the first to quantify wave attenuation for these vegetation species, which are abundant in the intertidal zone of California estuaries. Measurements were collected in the summer and winter to assess seasonal variation in wave attenuation. Calculated drag coefficients of S. foliosa and S. pacifica were similar, indicating equal amounts of vegetation would lead to similar energy dissipation; however, S. pacifica has much greater biomass close to the bed (<20 cm) and retains biomass throughout the year, and therefore, it causes more total attenuation. S. foliosa dies back in the winter, and waves often grow across this section of the marsh. For both vegetation types, attenuation was greatest for low water depths, when the vegetation was emergent. For both seasons, attenuation rates across S. pacifica were the highest and were greater than published attenuation rates across similar (Spartina alterniflora) salt marshes for the comparable depths. These results can inform designs for marsh restorations and management plans in San Francisco Bay and other estuaries containing these species.

The Ozark Plateaus Regional Aquifer Study—Documentation of a groundwater-flow model constructed to assess water availability in the Ozark Plateaus

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5035

Brian R. Clark, Joseph M. Richards, Katherine J. Knierim

Recent short-term drought conditions have emphasized the need to better understand the delicate balance between abundance, sustainability, and scarcity of groundwater in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began construction of a groundwater-flow model as a tool for the assessment of groundwater availability in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. The model was developed to benefit concurrent and future investigations involving groundwater-pumping scenarios, optimization, particle transport, and groundwater-monitoring network analysis.

The groundwater model simulates 116 years (1900–2015) of hydrologic conditions and the response of the groundwater system to changes in stress including changes in recharge and groundwater pumping for water supply. Semiseasonal stress periods were simulated from the later part of 1991 to 2015 and represent higher demand and lower recharge in the spring and summer months and lower demand and higher recharge in the fall and winter months. Groundwater pumping increases throughout the simulation period with a maximum rate of about 600 million gallons per day (Mgal/d).

The process of matching historical hydrologic data for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system model was accomplished by a combination of manual changes to parameter values and automated calibration methods. Observation data used in the development and evaluation of the model included 19,045 hydraulic-head observations from 6,683 wells within the model area. Observation data also included stream leakage estimates summed to calculate a net gain or net loss value for approximately 81 named streams.

The majority (mean of over 95 percent) of the recharge component is discharged through streams simulated in the model. The total simulated discharge to streams fluctuates seasonally between 7,500 and 17,500 Mgal/d with a mean outflow of 11,500 Mgal/d. Much of the remaining balance between modeled recharge inflows and stream outflows is made up by water moving into or out of storage in the aquifer system resulting in changes in modeled groundwater levels.

The goal of the model was to develop a model capable of suitable accuracy at regional scales. The intent was not to reproduce individual local-scale details, which are typically not possible given the uniform cell size of 1 square mile. Although the model may not represent each local-scale detail, the model can be applied for a better understanding of the regional flow system and to evaluate responses to changes in climate and groundwater pumping.

Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2015 through September 2016) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

Released March 30, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2017-1136

Kent A. Dodge, Michelle I. Hornberger, Matthew A. Turner

Water, bed sediment, and biota were sampled in selected streams from Butte to near Missoula, Montana, as part of a monitoring program in the upper Clark Fork Basin of western Montana. The sampling program was led by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to characterize aquatic resources in the Clark Fork Basin, with emphasis on trace elements associated with historic mining and smelting activities. Sampling sites were on the Clark Fork and selected tributaries. Water samples were collected periodically at 20 sites from October 2015 through September 2016. Bed-sediment and biota samples were collected once at 13 sites during August 2016.

This report presents the analytical results and quality-assurance data for water-quality, bed-sediment, and biota samples collected at sites from October 2015 through September 2016. Water-quality data include concentrations of selected major ions, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Samples for analysis of turbidity were collected at 13 sites, whereas samples for analysis of dissolved organic carbon were collected at 10 sites. In addition, samples for analysis of nitrogen (nitrate plus nitrite) were collected at two sites. Daily values of mean suspended-sediment concentration and suspended-sediment discharge were determined for three sites. Seasonal daily values of turbidity were determined for five sites. Bed-sediment data include trace-element concentrations in the fine-grained (less than 0.063 millimeter) fraction. Biological data include trace-element concentrations in whole-body tissue of aquatic benthic insects. Statistical summaries of water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data for sites in the upper Clark Fork Basin are provided for the period of record.

Guidelines for determining flood flow frequency—Bulletin 17C

Released March 29, 2018 15:45 EST

2018, Techniques and Methods 4-B5

John F. England Jr., Timothy A. Cohn, Beth A. Faber, Jery R. Stedinger, Wilbert O. Thomas Jr., Andrea G. Veilleux, Julie E. Kiang, Robert R. Mason Jr.

Accurate estimates of flood frequency and magnitude are a key component of any effective nationwide flood risk management and flood damage abatement program. In addition to accuracy, methods for estimating flood risk must be uniformly and consistently applied because management of the Nation’s water and related land resources is a collaborative effort involving multiple actors including most levels of government and the private sector.

Flood frequency guidelines have been published in the United States since 1967, and have undergone periodic revisions. In 1967, the U.S. Water Resources Council presented a coherent approach to flood frequency with Bulletin 15, “A Uniform Technique for Determining Flood Flow Frequencies.” The method it recommended involved fitting the log-Pearson Type III distribution to annual peak flow data by the method of moments.

The first extension and update of Bulletin 15 was published in 1976 as Bulletin 17, “Guidelines for Determining Flood Flow Frequency” (Guidelines). It extended the Bulletin 15 procedures by introducing methods for dealing with outliers, historical flood information, and regional skew. Bulletin 17A was published the following year to clarify the computation of weighted skew. The next revision of the Bulletin, the Bulletin 17B, provided a host of improvements and new techniques designed to address situations that often arise in practice, including better methods for estimating and using regional skew, weighting station and regional skew, detection of outliers, and use of the conditional probability adjustment.

The current version of these Guidelines are presented in this document, denoted Bulletin 17C. It incorporates changes motivated by four of the items listed as “Future Work” in Bulletin 17B and 30 years of post-17B research on flood processes and statistical methods. The updates include: adoption of a generalized representation of flood data that allows for interval and censored data types; a new method, called the Expected Moments Algorithm, which extends the method of moments so that it can accommodate interval data; a generalized approach to identification of low outliers in flood data; and an improved method for computing confidence intervals.

Federal agencies are requested to use these Guidelines in all planning activities involving water and related land resources. State, local, and private organizations are encouraged to use these Guidelines to assure uniformity in the flood frequency estimates that all agencies concerned with flood risk should use for Federal planning decisions.

This revision is adopted with the knowledge and understanding that review of these procedures will be ongoing. Updated methods will be adopted when warranted by experience and by examination and testing of new techniques.

Element migration of pyrites during ductile deformation of the Yuleken porphyry Cu deposit (NW-China)

Released March 29, 2018 00:00 EST

2017, Ore Geology Reviews

Tao Hong, Xing-Wang Xu, Jun Gao, Stephen Peters, Jilei Li, Mingjian Cao, Peng Xiang, Chu Wu, Jun You

The strongly deformed Yuleken porphyry Cu deposit (YPCD) occurs in the Kalaxiangar porphyry Cu belt (KPCB), which occupies the central area of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) between the Sawu’er island arc and the Altay Terrane in northern Xinjiang. The YPCD is one of several typical subduction-related deposits in the KPCB, which has undergone syn-collisional and post-collisional metallogenic overprinting. The YPCD is characterized by three pyrite-forming stages, namely a hydrothermal stage A (Py I), a syn-ductile deformation stage B (Py II) characterized by Cu-Au enrichment, and a fracture-filling stage C (Py III). In this study, we conducted systematic petrographic and geochemical studies of pyrites and coexist biotite, which formed during different stages, in order to constrain the physicochemical conditions of the ore formation. Euhedral, fragmented Py I has low Pb and high Te and Se concentration and Ni contents are low with Co/Ni ratios mostly between 1 and 10 (average 9.00). Py I is further characterized by enrichments of Bi, As, Ni, Cu, Te and Se in the core relative to the rim domains. Anhedral round Py II has moderate Co and Ni contents with high Co/Ni ratios >10 (average 95.2), and average contents of 46.5 ppm Pb and 5.80 ppm Te. Py II is further characterized by decreasing Bi, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Te, Mo, Sb and Au contents from the rim to the core domains. Annealed Py III has the lowest Co content of all pyrite types with Co/Ni ratios mostly <0.1 (average 1.33). Furthermore, Py III has average contents of 3.31 ppm Pb, 1.33 ppm Te and 94.6 ppm Se. In addition, Fe does not correlate with Cu and S in the Py I and Py III, while Py II displays a negative correlation between Fe and Cu as well as a positive correlation between Fe and S. Therefore, pyrites which formed during different tectonic regimes also have different chemical compositions. Biotite geothermometer and oxygen fugacity estimates display increasing temperatures and oxygen fugacities from stage A to stage B, while temperature and oxygen fugacities decrease from stage B to stage C. The Co/Ni ratio of pyrite depends discriminates between the different mineralizing stages in the Yuleken porphyry copper deposit: Py II, associated with the deformation stage B and Cu-enrichment, shows higher Co/Ni ratios and enrichments of Pb, Zn, Mo, Te and Sb than the pyrites formed during the other two stages. The Co/Ni ratio of pyrite can not only apply to discriminate the submarine exhalative, magmatic or sedimentary origins for ore deposits but also can distinguish different ore-forming stages in a single porphyry Cu deposit. Thus, Co/Ni ratio of pyrites may act as an important exploration tool to distinguish pyrites from Cu-rich versus barren area. Furthermore, the distribution of Cu, Mo, Pb, Au, Bi, Sb and Zn in the variably deformed pyrite is proportional to the extent of deformation of the pyrites, indicating in accordance with variable physicochemical conditions different element migration behavior during the different stages of deformation and, thus, mineralisation.

Microspatial ecotone dynamics at a shifting range limit: plant–soil variation across salt marsh–mangrove interfaces

Released March 28, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Oecologia

Erik S. Yando, Michael J. Osland, Mark H. Hester

Ecotone dynamics and shifting range limits can be used to advance our understanding of the ecological implications of future range expansions in response to climate change. In the northern Gulf of Mexico, the salt marsh–mangrove ecotone is an area where range limits and ecotone dynamics can be studied in tandem as recent decreases in winter temperature extremes have allowed for mangrove expansion at the expense of salt marsh. In this study, we assessed aboveground and belowground plant–soil dynamics across the salt marsh–mangrove ecotone quantifying micro-spatial patterns in horizontal extent. Specifically, we studied vegetation and rooting dynamics of large and small trees, the impact of salt marshes (e.g. species and structure) on mangroves, and the influence of vegetation on soil properties along transects from underneath the mangrove canopy into the surrounding salt marsh. Vegetation and rooting dynamics differed in horizontal reach, and there was a positive relationship between mangrove tree height and rooting extent. We found that the horizontal expansion of mangrove roots into salt marsh extended up to eight meters beyond the aboveground boundary. Variation in vegetation structure and local hydrology appear to control mangrove seedling dynamics. Finally, soil carbon density and organic matter did not differ within locations across the salt marsh-mangrove interface. By studying aboveground and belowground variation across the ecotone, we can better predict the ecological effects of continued range expansion in response to climate change.

Brook trout distributional response to unconventional oil and gas development: Landscape context matters

Released March 28, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Science of the Total Environment (628-629) 338-349

Eric R. Merriam, J. Todd Petty, Kelly O. Maloney, John A. Young, Stephen Faulkner, Terry Slonecker, Lesley E. Milheim, Atesmachew Hailegiorgis, Jonathan M. Niles

We conducted a large-scale assessment of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development effects on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution. We compiled 2231 brook trout collection records from the Upper Susquehanna River Watershed, USA. We used boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis to predict occurrence probability at the 1:24,000 stream-segment scale as a function of natural and anthropogenic landscape and climatic attributes. We then evaluated the importance of landscape context (i.e., pre-existing natural habitat quality and anthropogenic degradation) in modulating the effects of UOG on brook trout distribution under UOG development scenarios. BRT made use of 5 anthropogenic (28% relative influence) and 7 natural (72% relative influence) variables to model occurrence with a high degree of accuracy [Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) = 0.85 and cross-validated AUC = 0.81]. UOG development impacted 11% (n = 2784) of streams and resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 126 (4%). Most streams impacted by UOG had unsuitable underlying natural habitat quality (n = 1220; 44%). Brook trout were predicted to be absent from an additional 26% (n = 733) of streams due to pre-existing non-UOG land uses (i.e., agriculture, residential and commercial development, or historic mining). Streams with a predicted and observed (via existing pre- and post-disturbance fish sampling records) loss of occurrence due to UOG tended to have intermediate natural habitat quality and/or intermediate levels of non-UOG stress. Simulated development of permitted but undeveloped UOG wells (n = 943) resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 27 additional streams. Loss of occurrence was strongly dependent upon landscape context, suggesting effects of current and future UOG development are likely most relevant in streams near the probability threshold due to pre-existing habitat degradation.

Influence of governance structure on green stormwater infrastructure investment

Released March 28, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Environmental Science and Policy (84) 124-133

Kristina G. Hopkins, Nancy B. Grimm, Abigail M. York

Communities are faced with the challenge of meeting regulatory requirements mandating reductions in water pollution from stormwater and combined sewer overflows (CSO). Green stormwater infrastructure and gray stormwater infrastructure are two types of water management strategies communities can use to address water pollution. In this study, we used long-term control plans from 25 U.S. cities to synthesize: the types of gray and green infrastructure being used by communities to address combined sewer overflows; the types of goals set; biophysical characteristics of each city; and factors associated with the governance of stormwater management. These city characteristics were then used to identify common characteristics of “green leader” cities—those that dedicated >20% of the control plan budget in green infrastructure. Five “green leader” cities were identified: Milwaukee, WI, Philadelphia, PA, Syracuse, NY, New York City, NY, and Buffalo, NY. These five cities had explicit green infrastructure goals targeting the volume of stormwater or percentage of impervious cover managed by green infrastructure. Results suggested that the management scale and complexity of the management system are less important factors than the ability to harness a “policy window” to integrate green infrastructure into control plans. Two case studies—Philadelphia, PA, and Milwaukee, WI—indicated that green leader cities have a long history of building momentum for green infrastructure through a series of phases from experimentation, demonstration, and finally—in the case of Philadelphia—a full transition in the approach used to manage CSOs.

Application of microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (MHVSR) analysis for site characterization: State of the art

Released March 28, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Surveys in Geophysics

S. Molnar, J. F. Cassidy, S. Castellaro, C. Cornou, H. Crow, J. A. Hunter, S. Matsushima, F. J. Sánchez-Sesma, Alan K. Yong

Nakamura (Q Rep Railway Tech Res Inst 30:25–33, 1989) popularized the application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of microtremor (seismic noise or ambient vibration) recordings to estimate the predominant frequency and amplification factor of earthquake shaking. During the following quarter century, popularity in the microtremor HVSR (MHVSR) method grew; studies have verified the stability of a site’s MHVSR response over time and validated the MHVSR response with that of earthquake HVSR response. Today, MHVSR analysis is a popular reconnaissance tool used worldwide for seismic microzonation and earthquake site characterization in numerous regions, specifically, in the mapping of site period or fundamental frequency and inverted for shear-wave velocity depth profiles, respectively. However, the ubiquity of MHVSR analysis is predominantly a consequence of its ease in application rather than our full understanding of its theory. We present the state of the art in MHVSR analyses in terms of the development of its theoretical basis, current state of practice, and we comment on its future for applications in earthquake site characterization.

Modeling habitat for Marbled Murrelets on the Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon, using lidar data

Released March 28, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1035

Joan C. Hagar, Ramiro Aragon, Patricia Haggerty, Jeff P. Hollenbeck

Habitat models using lidar-derived variables that quantify fine-scale variation in vegetation structure can improve the accuracy of occupancy estimates for canopy-dwelling species over models that use variables derived from other remote sensing techniques. However, the ability of models developed at such a fine spatial scale to maintain accuracy at regional or larger spatial scales has not been tested. We tested the transferability of a lidar-based habitat model for the threatened Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) between two management districts within a larger regional conservation zone in coastal western Oregon. We compared the performance of the transferred model against models developed with data from the application location. The transferred model had good discrimination (AUC = 0.73) at the application location, and model performance was further improved by fitting the original model with coefficients from the application location dataset (AUC = 0.79). However, the model selection procedure indicated that neither of these transferred models were considered competitive with a model trained on local data. The new model trained on data from the application location resulted in the selection of a slightly different set of lidar metrics from the original model, but both transferred and locally trained models consistently indicated positive relationships between the probability of occupancy and lidar measures of canopy structural complexity. We conclude that while the locally trained model had superior performance for local application, the transferred model could reasonably be applied to the entire conservation zone.

Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in prey abundance and vulnerability shapes the foraging tactics of an omnivore

Released March 28, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Animal Ecology (87) 874-887

Nathaniel Rayl, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, John F. Organ, Matthew Mumma, Shane P. Mahoney, Colleen Soulliere, Keith Lewis, Robert Otto, Dennis Murray, Lisette Waits, Todd Fuller

  1. Prey abundance and prey vulnerability vary across space and time, but we know little about how they mediate predator–prey interactions and predator foraging tactics. To evaluate the interplay between prey abundance, prey vulnerability and predator space use, we examined patterns of black bear (Ursus americanus) predation of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) neonates in Newfoundland, Canada using data from 317 collared individuals (9 bears, 34 adult female caribou, 274 caribou calves).
  2. During the caribou calving season, we predicted that landscape features would influence calf vulnerability to bear predation, and that bears would actively hunt calves by selecting areas associated with increased calf vulnerability. Further, we hypothesized that bears would dynamically adjust their foraging tactics in response to spatiotemporal changes in calf abundance and vulnerability (collectively, calf availability). Accordingly, we expected bears to actively hunt calves when they were most abundant and vulnerable, but switch to foraging on other resources as calf availability declined.
  3. As predicted, landscape heterogeneity influenced risk of mortality, and bears displayed the strongest selection for areas where they were most likely to kill calves, which suggested they were actively hunting caribou. Initially, the per‐capita rate at which bears killed calves followed a type‐I functional response, but as the calving season progressed and calf vulnerability declined, kill rates dissociated from calf abundance. In support of our hypothesis, bears adjusted their foraging tactics when they were less efficient at catching calves, highlighting the influence that predation phenology may have on predator space use. Contrary to our expectations, however, bears appeared to continue to hunt caribou as calf availability declined, but switched from a tactic of selecting areas of increased calf vulnerability to a tactic that maximized encounter rates with calves.
  4. Our results reveal that generalist predators can dynamically adjust their foraging tactics over short time‐scales in response to changing prey abundance and vulnerability. Further, they demonstrate the utility of integrating temporal dynamics of prey availability into investigations of predator–prey interactions, and move towards a mechanistic understanding of the dynamic foraging tactics of a large omnivore.

Research frontiers for improving our understanding of drought‐induced tree and forest mortality

Released March 28, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, New Phytologist (218) 15-28

Henrik Hartmann, Catarina Moura, William R. L. Anderegg, Nadine Ruehr, Yann Salmon, Craig D. Allen, Stefan K. Arndt, David D. Breshears, Hendrik Davi, David Galbraith, Katinka X. Ruthrof, Jan Wunder, Henry D. Adams, Jasper Bloemen, Maxime Cailleret, Richard Cobb, Arthur Gessler, Thorsten E. E. Grams, Steven Jansen, Markus Kautz, Francisco Lloret, Michael O’Brien

Accumulating evidence highlights increased mortality risks for trees during severe drought, particularly under warmer temperatures and increasing vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Resulting forest die‐off events have severe consequences for ecosystem services, biophysical and biogeochemical land–atmosphere processes. Despite advances in monitoring, modelling and experimental studies of the causes and consequences of tree death from individual tree to ecosystem and global scale, a general mechanistic understanding and realistic predictions of drought mortality under future climate conditions are still lacking. We update a global tree mortality map and present a roadmap to a more holistic understanding of forest mortality across scales. We highlight priority research frontiers that promote: (1) new avenues for research on key tree ecophysiological responses to drought; (2) scaling from the tree/plot level to the ecosystem and region; (3) improvements of mortality risk predictions based on both empirical and mechanistic insights; and (4) a global monitoring network of forest mortality. In light of recent and anticipated large forest die‐off events such a research agenda is timely and needed to achieve scientific understanding for realistic predictions of drought‐induced tree mortality. The implementation of a sustainable network will require support by stakeholders and political authorities at the international level.

Review of the geochemistry and metallogeny of approximately 1.4 Ga granitoid intrusions of the conterminous United States

Released March 27, 2018 15:30 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2017-5111

Edward A. du Bray, Christopher S. Holm-Denoma, Karen Lund, Wayne R. Premo

The conterminous United States hosts numerous volumetrically significant and geographically dispersed granitoid intrusions that range in age from 1.50 to 1.32 billion years before present (Ga). Although previously referred to as A-type granites, most are better described as ferroan granites. These granitoid intrusions are distributed in the northern and central Rocky Mountains, the Southwest, the northern midcontinent, and a swath largely buried beneath Phanerozoic cover across the Great Plains and into the southern midcontinent. These intrusions, with ages that are bimodally distributed between about 1.455–1.405 Ga and 1.405–1.320 Ga, are dispersed nonsystematically with respect to age across their spatial extents. Globally, although A-type or ferroan granites are genetically associated with rare-metal deposits, most U.S. 1.4 Ga granitoid intrusions do not contain significant deposits. Exceptions are the light rare-earth element deposit at Mountain Pass, California, and the iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits in southeast Missouri.

Most of the U.S. 1.4 Ga granitoid intrusions are composed of hornblende ± biotite or biotite ± muscovite monzogranite, commonly with prominent alkali feldspar megacrysts; however, modal compositions vary widely. These intrusions include six of the eight commonly identified subtypes of ferroan granite: alkali-calcic and calc-alkalic peraluminous subtypes; alkalic, alkali-calcic, and calc-alkalic metaluminous subtypes; and the alkalic peralkaline subtype. The U.S. 1.4 Ga granitoid intrusions also include variants of these subtypes that have weakly magnesian compositions. Extreme large-ion lithophile element enrichments typical of ferroan granites elsewhere are absent among these intrusions. Chondrite-normalized rare-earth element patterns for these intrusions have modest negative slopes and moderately developed negative europium anomalies. Their radiogenic isotopic compositions are consistent with mixing involving primitive, mantle-derived components and evolved, crust-derived components.

Each compositional subtype can be ascribed to a relatively unique petrogenetic history. The numerically dominant ferroan, peraluminous granites probably represent low-degree, relatively high-pressure partial melting of preexisting, crust-derived, intermediate-composition granitoids. The moderately numerous, weakly magnesian, peraluminous granites probably reflect similar partial melting but at a higher degree and in a lower pressure environment. In contrast, the ferroan but metaluminous granites may be the result of extensive differentiation of tholeiitic basalt. Finally, the peralkaline igneous rocks at Mountain Pass have compositions potentially derived by differentiation of alkali basalt. The varying alkalic character of each subtype probably reflects polybaric petrogenesis and the corresponding effect of diverse mineral stabilities on ultimate melt compositions. Mantle-derived mafic magma and variably assimilated partial melts of mainly juvenile Paleoproterozoic crustal components are required to generate the relatively low initial strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and distinctive neodymium isotope compositions characteristic of the U.S. 1.4 Ga granitoid intrusions. The characteristics of these intrusions are consistent with crustal melting in an extensional/decompressional, intracratonic setting that was triggered by mantle upwelling and emplacement of tholeiitic basaltic magma at or near the base of the crust. Composite magmas, formed by mingling and mixing mantle components with partial melts of Paleoproterozoic crust, produced variably homogenized storage reservoirs that continued polybaric evolution as intrusions lodged at various crustal depths.

Coping with constraints: Achieving effective conservation with limited resources

Released March 27, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution (6) 1-8

Susan Walls

Conservation resources have become increasingly limited and, along with social, cultural and political complexities, this shortfall frequently challenges effectiveness in conservation. Because conservation can be costly, efforts are often only initiated after a species has declined below a critical threshold and/or when statutory protection is mandated. However, implementing conservation proactively, rather than reactively, is predicted to be less costly and to decrease a species' risk of extinction. Despite these benefits, I document that the number of studies that have implemented proactive conservation around the world are far fewer than those that simply acknowledge the need for such action. I provide examples of proactive actions that can ameliorate shortfalls in funding and other assets, thus helping conservation practitioners and managers cope with the constraints that resource limitation imposes. Not all of these options are new; however, the timing of their implementation is critical for effective conservation, and the need for more proactive conservation is increasingly recognized. These actions are (1) strengthening and diversifying stakeholder involvement in conservation projects; (2) complementing time-consuming and labor-intensive demographic studies with alternative approaches of detecting declines and estimating extinction risk; and (3) minimizing future costly conservation and management by proactively keeping common species common. These approaches may not constitute a cure-all for every conservation crisis. However, given escalating rates of species' losses, perhaps a reminder that these proactive actions can reduce conservation costs, save time, and potentially thwart population declines is warranted.

Continuous gravity and tilt reveal anomalous pressure and density changes associated with gas pistoning within the summit lava lake of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi

Released March 27, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Geophysical Research Letters (45) 2319-2327

Michael Poland, Daniele Carbone

Gas piston events within the summit eruptive vent of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, are characterized by increases in lava level and by decreases in seismic energy release, spattering, and degassing. During 2010–2011, gas piston events were especially well manifested, with lava level rises of tens of meters over the course of several hours, followed by a sudden drop to preevent levels. The changes in lava level were accompanied by directly proportional changes in gravity, but ground deformation determined from tilt was anticorrelative. The small magnitude of the gravity changes, compared to the large changes in volume within the vent during gas pistons, suggests that pistoning involves the accumulation of a very low‐density (100–200 kg/m3) foam at the top of the lava column. Co‐event ground tilt indicates that rise in lava level is paradoxically associated with deflation (the opposite is usually true), which can be modeled as an increase in the gas content of the magma column between the source reservoir and the surface. Gas pistoning behavior is therefore associated with not only accumulation of a shallow magmatic foam but also more bubbles within the feeder conduit, probably due to the overall decrease in gas emissions from the lava lake during piston events.

Decadal changes in channel morphology of a freely meandering river—Powder River, Montana, 1975–2016

Released March 26, 2018 16:10 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1012

John A. Moody, Robert H. Meade

Few studies exist on the long-term geomorphic effects of floods. However, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was able to begin such a study after a 50-year recurrence interval flood in 1978 because 20 channel cross sections along a 100-kilometer reach of river were established in 1975 and 1977 as part of a study for a proposed dam on Powder River in southeastern Montana. These cross-section measurements (data for each channel cross section are available at the USGS ScienceBase website) have been repeated about 30 times during four decades (1975–2016) and provide a unique dataset for understanding long-term changes in channel morphology caused by an extreme flood and a spectrum of annual floods.

Changes in channel morphology of a 100-kilometer reach of Powder River are documented in a series of narratives for each channel cross section that include a time series of photographs as a record of these changes. The primary change during the first decade (1975–85) was the rapid vertical growth of a new inset flood plain within the flood-widened channel. Changes during the second decade (1985–95) were characterized by slower growth of the flood plain, and the effects of ice-jam floods typical of a northward-flowing river. Changes during the third decade (1995–2005) showed little vertical growth of the inset flood plain, which had reached a height that limited overbank deposition. And changes during the final decade (2005–16) covered in this report showed that, because the new inset flood plain had reached a limiting height, the effects of the large annual flood of 2008 (largest flood since 1978) were relatively small compared to smaller floods in previous decades. Throughout these four decades, the riparian vegetation, which interacts with the river, has undergone a gradual but substantial change that may have lasting effects on the channel morphology.

Flood-inundation and flood-mitigation modeling of the West Branch Wapsinonoc Creek Watershed in West Branch, Iowa

Released March 26, 2018 15:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5002

Charles V. Cigrand

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the city of West Branch and the Herbert Hoover National Historic Site of the National Park Service assessed flood-mitigation scenarios within the West Branch Wapsinonoc Creek watershed. The scenarios are intended to demonstrate several means of decreasing peak streamflows and improving the conveyance of overbank flows from the West Branch Wapsinonoc Creek and its tributary Hoover Creek where they flow through the city and the Herbert Hoover National Historic Site located within the city.

Hydrologic and hydraulic models of the watershed were constructed to assess the flood-mitigation scenarios. To accomplish this, the models used the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) version 4.2 to simulate the amount of runoff and streamflow produced from single rain events. The Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) version 5.0 was then used to construct an unsteady-state model that may be used for routing streamflows, mapping areas that may be inundated during floods, and simulating the effects of different measures taken to decrease the effects of floods on people and infrastructure.

Both models were calibrated to three historic rainfall events that produced peak streamflows ranging between the 2-year and 10-year flood-frequency recurrence intervals at the USGS streamgage (05464942) on Hoover Creek. The historic rainfall events were calibrated by using data from two USGS streamgages along with surveyed high-water marks from one of the events. The calibrated HEC–HMS model was then used to simulate streamflows from design rainfall events of 24-hour duration ranging from a 20-percent to a 1-percent annual exceedance probability. These simulated streamflows were incorporated into the HEC–RAS model.

The unsteady-state HEC–RAS model was calibrated to represent existing conditions within the watershed. HEC–RAS model simulations with the existing conditions and streamflows from the design rainfall events were then done to serve as a baseline for evaluating flood-mitigation scenarios. After these simulations were completed, three different flood-mitigation scenarios were developed with HEC–RAS: a detention-storage scenario, a conveyance improvement scenario, and a combination of both. In the detention-storage scenario, four in-channel detention structures were placed upstream from the city of West Branch to attenuate peak streamflows. To investigate possible improvements to conveying floodwaters through the city of West Branch, a section of abandoned railroad embankment and an old truss bridge were removed in the model, because these structures were producing backwater areas during flooding events. The third scenario combines the detention and conveyance scenarios so their joint efficiency could be evaluated. The scenarios with the design rainfall events were run in the HEC–RAS model so their flood-mitigation effects could be analyzed across a wide range of flood magnitudes.

Parasitism and the biodiversity-functioning relationship

Released March 26, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Trends in Ecology and Evolution (33) 260-268

André Frainer, Brendan G. McKie, Per-Arne Amundsen, Rune Knudsen, Kevin D. Lafferty

Biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning.

Biodiversity may decrease or increase parasitism.

Parasites impair individual hosts and affect their role in the ecosystem.

Parasitism, in common with competition, facilitation, and predation, could regulate BD-EF relationships.

Parasitism affects host phenotypes, including changes to host morphology, behavior, and physiology, which might increase intra- and interspecific functional diversity.

The effects of parasitism on host abundance and phenotypes, and on interactions between hosts and the remaining community, all have potential to alter community structure and BD-EF relationships.

Global change could facilitate the spread of invasive parasites, and alter the existing dynamics between parasites, communities, and ecosystems.

Species interactions can influence ecosystem functioning by enhancing or suppressing the activities of species that drive ecosystem processes, or by causing changes in biodiversity. However, one important class of species interactions – parasitism – has been little considered in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BD-EF) research. Parasites might increase or decrease ecosystem processes by reducing host abundance. Parasites could also increase trait diversity by suppressing dominant species or by increasing within-host trait diversity. These different mechanisms by which parasites might affect ecosystem function pose challenges in predicting their net effects. Nonetheless, given the ubiquity of parasites, we propose that parasite–host interactions should be incorporated into the BD-EF framework.

Refining aging criteria for northern sea otters in Washington State

Released March 26, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management

Krysten L. Schuler, Bridget B. Baker, Karl A. Mayer, Carolina Perez-Heydrich, Paula M. Holahan, Nancy J. Thomas, C. LeAnn White

Measurement of skull ossification patterns is a standard method for aging various mammalian species and has been used to age Russian, Californian, and Alaskan sea otter populations. Cementum annuli counts have also been verified as an accurate aging method for the Alaskan sea otter population. In this study, cementum annuli count results and skull ossification patterns were compared as methods for aging the northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) population in Washington State. Significant agreement was found between the two methods suggesting that either method could be used to age the Washington population of otters. This study also found that ossification of the squamosal-jugal suture at the ventral glenoid fossa can be used to differentiate male subadults from adults. To assist field biologists or others without access to cementum annuli or skull ossification analysis techniques, a suite of morphologic, physiologic, and developmental characteristics were analyzed to assess whether a set of these more easily accessible parameters could also predict age class for the Washington population of otters. Tooth condition score, evidence of reproductive activity in females, and tooth eruption pattern were identified as the most useful criteria for classifying Washington sea otters as pups, juveniles, subadults, or adults/aged adults. A simple decision tree based on characteristics accessible in the field or at necropsy was created that can be used to reliably predict age class of Washington sea otters as determined by cementum annuli.

Investigation of a largescale common murre (Uria aalge) mortality event in California in 2015

Released March 26, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Wildlife Diseases

Corinne Gibble, Rebecca Duerr, Barbara Bodenstein, Kirsten Lindquist, Jackie Lindsey, Jessie Beck, Laird A. Henkel, Jan Roletto, Jim Harvey, Raphael Kudela

From August through December 2015, beachcast bird survey programs reported increased deposition of common murres (Uria aalge) on central and northern California beaches, but not on southern California beaches. Coastal wildlife rehabilitation centers received more than 1,000 live, stranded, and debilitated murres from Sonoma County to San Luis Obispo County during August–October. Approximately two-thirds of admitted birds were after-hatch-year birds in emaciated body condition and in various stages of molt, with extremely worn plumage. Necropsies were done on a sample (n=35) of birds to determine the probable cause of death of beachcast carcasses. Most birds examined during necropsy were emaciated, with starvation the most likely cause of death. Birds were also tested for underlying infectious diseases at the US Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and harmful algal bloom toxins at the University of California, Santa Cruz and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's Northwest Fisheries Science Center. Twenty-four out of 29 tested birds had detectable levels of domoic acid, and no indication of infectious disease was found. Emaciation is thought to be the cause of death for these birds, with a large warm water anomaly and harmful algal bloom playing a secondary detrimental role.

Archie’s saturation exponent for natural gas hydrate in coarse-grained reservoirs

Released March 26, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth

Ann E. Cook, William F. Waite

Accurately quantifying the amount of naturally occurring gas hydrate in marine and permafrost environments is important for assessing its resource potential and understanding the role of gas hydrate in the global carbon cycle. Electrical resistivity well logs are often used to calculate gas hydrate saturations, Sh, using Archie's equation. Archie's equation, in turn, relies on an empirical saturation parameter, n. Though n = 1.9 has been measured for ice‐bearing sands and is widely used within the hydrate community, it is highly questionable if this n value is appropriate for hydrate‐bearing sands. In this work, we calibrate n for hydrate‐bearing sands from the Canadian permafrost gas hydrate research well, Mallik 5L‐38, by establishing an independent downhole Sh profile based on compressional‐wave velocity log data. Using the independently determined Sh profile and colocated electrical resistivity and bulk density logs, Archie's saturation equation is solved for n, and uncertainty is tracked throughout the iterative process. In addition to the Mallik 5L‐38 well, we also apply this method to two marine, coarse‐grained reservoirs from the northern Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project: Walker Ridge 313‐H and Green Canyon 955‐H. All locations yield similar results, each suggesting n ≈ 2.5 ± 0.5. Thus, for the coarse‐grained hydrate bearing (Sh > 0.4) of greatest interest as potential energy resources, we suggest that n = 2.5 ± 0.5 should be applied in Archie's equation for either marine or permafrost gas hydrate settings if independent estimates of n are not available.

Inferring species interactions through joint mark–recapture analysis

Released March 26, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Ecology (99) 812-821

Charles B. Yackulic, Josh Korman, Michael D. Yard, Maria C. Dzul

Introduced species are frequently implicated in declines of native species. In many cases, however, evidence linking introduced species to native declines is weak. Failure to make strong inferences regarding the role of introduced species can hamper attempts to predict population viability and delay effective management responses. For many species, mark–recapture analysis is the more rigorous form of demographic analysis. However, to our knowledge, there are no mark–recapture models that allow for joint modeling of interacting species. Here, we introduce a two‐species mark–recapture population model in which the vital rates (and capture probabilities) of one species are allowed to vary in response to the abundance of the other species. We use a simulation study to explore bias and choose an approach to model selection. We then use the model to investigate species interactions between endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) and introduced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Colorado River between 2009 and 2016. In particular, we test hypotheses about how two environmental factors (turbidity and temperature), intraspecific density dependence, and rainbow trout abundance are related to survival, growth, and capture of juvenile humpback chub. We also project the long‐term effects of different rainbow trout abundances on adult humpback chub abundances. Our simulation study suggests this approach has minimal bias under potentially challenging circumstances (i.e., low capture probabilities) that characterized our application and that model selection using indicator variables could reliably identify the true generating model even when process error was high. When the model was applied to rainbow trout and humpback chub, we identified negative relationships between rainbow trout abundance and the survival, growth, and capture probability of juvenile humpback chub. Effects on interspecific interactions on survival and capture probability were strongly supported, whereas support for the growth effect was weaker. Environmental factors were also identified to be important and in many cases stronger than interspecific interactions, and there was still substantial unexplained variation in growth and survival rates. The general approach presented here for combining mark–recapture data for two species is applicable in many other systems and could be modified to model abundance of the invader via other modeling approaches.

Identifying optimal remotely-sensed variables for ecosystem monitoring in Colorado Plateau drylands

Released March 26, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Arid Environments (153) 76-87

Travis Poitras, Miguel Villarreal, Eric K. Waller, Travis Nauman, Mark E. Miller, Michael C. Duniway

Water-limited ecosystems often recover slowly following anthropogenic or natural disturbance. Multitemporal remote sensing can be used to monitor ecosystem recovery after disturbance; however, dryland vegetation cover can be challenging to accurately measure due to sparse cover and spectral confusion between soils and non-photosynthetic vegetation. With the goal of optimizing a monitoring approach for identifying both abrupt and gradual vegetation changes, we evaluated the ability of Landsat-derived spectral variables to characterize surface variability of vegetation cover and bare ground across a range of vegetation community types. Using three year composites of Landsat data, we modeled relationships between spectral information and field data collected at monitoring sites near Canyonlands National Park, UT. We also developed multiple regression models to assess improvement over single variables. We found that for all vegetation types, percent cover bare ground could be accurately modeled with single indices that included a combination of red and shortwave infrared bands, while near infrared-based vegetation indices like NDVI worked best for quantifying tree cover and total live vegetation cover in woodlands. We applied four models to characterize the spatial distribution of putative grassland ecological states across our study area, illustrating how this approach can be implemented to guide dryland ecosystem management.

Nonhydrostatic and surfbeat model predictions of extreme wave run-up in fringing reef environments

Released March 26, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Coastal Engineering (137) 11-27

Christopher H. Lashley, Dano Roelvink, Ap R. van Dongeren, Mark L. Buckley, Ryan J. Lowe

The accurate prediction of extreme wave run-up is important for effective coastal engineering design and coastal hazard management. While run-up processes on open sandy coasts have been reasonably well-studied, very few studies have focused on understanding and predicting wave run-up at coral reef-fronted coastlines. This paper applies the short-wave resolving, Nonhydrostatic (XB-NH) and short-wave averaged, Surfbeat (XB-SB) modes of the XBeach numerical model to validate run-up using data from two 1D (alongshore uniform) fringing-reef profiles without roughness elements, with two objectives: i) to provide insight into the physical processes governing run-up in such environments; and ii) to evaluate the performance of both modes in accurately predicting run-up over a wide range of conditions. XBeach was calibrated by optimizing the maximum wave steepness parameter (maxbrsteep) in XB-NH and the dissipation coefficient (alpha) in XB-SB) using the first dataset; and then applied to the second dataset for validation. XB-NH and XB-SB predictions of extreme wave run-up (Rmax and R2%) and its components, infragravity- and sea-swell band swash (SIG and SSS) and shoreline setup (<η>), were compared to observations. XB-NH more accurately simulated wave transformation but under-predicted shoreline setup due to its exclusion of parameterized wave-roller dynamics. XB-SB under-predicted sea-swell band swash but overestimated shoreline setup due to an over-prediction of wave heights on the reef flat. Run-up (swash) spectra were dominated by infragravity motions, allowing the short-wave (but not wave group) averaged model (XB-SB) to perform comparably well to its more complete, short-wave resolving (XB-NH) counterpart. Despite their respective limitations, both modes were able to accurately predict Rmax and R2%.

Drivers of solar radiation variability in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

Released March 26, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Reports (8)

Maciej Obryk, Andrew G. Fountain, Peter Doran, Berry Lyons, Ryan Eastman

Annually averaged solar radiation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica has varied by over 20 W m−2 during the past three decades; however, the drivers of this variability are unknown. Because small differences in radiation are important to water availability and ecosystem functioning in polar deserts, determining the causes are important to predictions of future desert processes. We examine the potential drivers of solar variability and systematically eliminate all but stratospheric sulfur dioxide. We argue that increases in stratospheric sulfur dioxide increase stratospheric aerosol optical depth and decrease solar intensity. Because of the polar location of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (77–78°S) and relatively long solar ray path through the stratosphere, terrestrial solar intensity is sensitive to small differences in stratospheric transmissivity. Important sources of sulfur dioxide include natural (wildfires and volcanic eruptions) and anthropogenic emission.

Volcano art at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park—A science perspective

Released March 26, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1027

Ben Gaddis, James P. Kauahikaua

Long before landscape photography became common, artists sketched and painted scenes of faraway places for the masses. Throughout the 19th century, scientific expeditions to Hawaiʻi routinely employed artists to depict images for the people back home who had funded the exploration and for those with an interest in the newly discovered lands.

In Hawaiʻi, artists portrayed the broad variety of people, plant and animal life, and landscapes, but a feature of singular interest was the volcanoes. Painters of early Hawaiian volcano landscapes created art that formed a cohesive body of work known as the “Volcano School” (Forbes, 1992).

Jules Tavernier, Charles Furneaux, and D. Howard Hitchcock were probably the best known artists of this school, and their paintings can be found in galleries around the world. Their dramatic paintings were recognized as fine art but were also strong advertisements for tourists to visit Hawaiʻi.

Many of these masterpieces are preserved in the Museum and Archive Collection of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, and in this report we have taken the opportunity to match the artwork with the approximate date and volcanological context of the scene.

Geologic map of the Nepenthes Planum Region, Mars

Released March 26, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Scientific Investigations Map 3389

James A. Skinner, Kenneth L. Tanaka

This map product contains a map sheet at 1:1,506,000 scale that shows the geology of the Nepenthes Planum region of Mars, which is located between the cratered highlands that dominate the southern hemisphere and the less-cratered sedimentary plains that dominate the northern hemisphere.  The map region contains cone- and mound-shaped landforms as well as lobate materials that are morphologically similar to terrestrial igneous or mud vents and flows. This map is part of an informal series of small-scale (large-area) maps aimed at refining current understanding of the geologic units and structures that make up the highland-to-lowland transition zone. The map base consists of a controlled Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) daytime infrared image mosaic (100 meters per pixel resolution) supplemented by a Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) digital elevation model (463 meters per pixel resolution). The map includes a Description of Map Units and a Correlation of Map Units that describes and correlates units identified across the entire map region. The geologic map was assembled using ArcGIS software by Environmental Systems Research Institute (http://www.esri.com). The ArcGIS project, geodatabase, base map, and all map components are included online as supplemental data.

Hot water in the Long Valley Caldera—The benefits and hazards of this large natural resource

Released March 26, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Fact Sheet 2018-3009

William C. Evans, Shaul Hurwitz, Deborah Bergfeld, James F. Howle

The volcanic processes that have shaped the Long Valley Caldera in eastern California have also created an abundant supply of natural hot water. This natural resource provides benefits to many users, including power generation at the Casa Diablo Geothermal Plant, warm water for a state fish hatchery, and beautiful scenic areas such as Hot Creek gorge for visitors. However, some features can be dangerous because of sudden and unpredictable changes in the location and flow rate of boiling water. The U.S. Geological Survey monitors several aspects of the hydrothermal system in the Long Valley Caldera including temperature, flow rate, and water chemistry.

Managing an invasive corallimorph at Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, Line Islands, Central Pacific

Released March 23, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Biological Invasions

Thierry M. Work, Greta S. Aeby, Benjamin P. Neal, Nichole N. Price, Eric Conklin, Amanda Pollock

In 2007, a phase shift from corals to corallimorpharians (CM) centered around a shipwreck was documented at Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands. Subsequent surveys revealed CM to be overgrowing the reef benthos, including corals and coralline algae, potentially placing coral ecosystems in the atoll at risk. This prompted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the lead management agency of the atoll, to remove the shipwreck. Subsequent surveys showed reductions in CM around the ship impact site. We explain patterns of spread of the CM in terms of both life history and local currents and show with a pilot study that pulverized bleach may be an effective tool to eradicate CM on a local scale. If applied strategically, particularly in heavily infested (> 66% cover) areas, active intervention such as this could be an effective management tool to reduce CM impact on localized areas and decrease colonization rate of remaining reefs. This is the first documentation of the response of an invasive cnidarian to shipwreck removal. While this was a singular event in Palmyra, the spatial and temporal patterns of this invasion and the eradications lessons described herein, are useful for anticipating and controlling similar situations elsewhere.

Shifting stream planform state decreases stream productivity yet increases riparian animal production

Released March 23, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Oecologia

Michael P. Venarsky, David M. Walters, Robert O. Hall Jr., Bridget Livers, Ellen Wohl

In the Colorado Front Range (USA), disturbance history dictates stream planform. Undisturbed, old-growth streams have multiple channels and large amounts of wood and depositional habitat. Disturbed streams (wildfires and logging < 200 years ago) are single-channeled with mostly erosional habitat. We tested how these opposing stream states influenced organic matter, benthic macroinvertebrate secondary production, emerging aquatic insect flux, and riparian spider biomass. Organic matter and macroinvertebrate production did not differ among sites per unit area (m−2), but values were 2 ×–21 × higher in undisturbed reaches per unit of stream valley (m−1 valley) because total stream area was higher in undisturbed reaches. Insect emergence was similar among streams at the per unit area and per unit of stream valley. However, rescaling insect emergence to per meter of stream bank showed that the emerging insect biomass reaching the stream bank was lower in undisturbed sites because multi-channel reaches had 3 × more stream bank than single-channel reaches. Riparian spider biomass followed the same pattern as emerging aquatic insects, and we attribute this to bottom-up limitation caused by the multi-channeled undisturbed sites diluting prey quantity (emerging insects) reaching the stream bank (riparian spider habitat). These results show that historic landscape disturbances continue to influence stream and riparian communities in the Colorado Front Range. However, these legacy effects are only weakly influencing habitat-specific function and instead are primarily influencing stream–riparian community productivity by dictating both stream planform (total stream area, total stream bank length) and the proportional distribution of specific habitat types (pools vs riffles).

Functional group, biomass, and climate change effects on ecological drought in semiarid grasslands

Released March 23, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Journal of Geophysical Research G: Biogeosciences (123) 1072-1085

Scott D. Wilson, Daniel R. Schlaepfer, John B. Bradford, William K. Lauenroth, Michael C. Duniway, Sonia A. Hall, Khishigbayar Jamiyansharav, Gensuo Jia, Ariuntsetseg Lkhagva, Seth M. Munson, David A. Pyke, Britta Tietjen

Water relations in plant communities are influenced both by contrasting functional groups (grasses, shrubs) and by climate change via complex effects on interception, uptake and transpiration. We modelled the effects of functional group replacement and biomass increase, both of which can be outcomes of invasion and vegetation management, and climate change on ecological drought (soil water potential below which photosynthesis stops) in 340 semiarid grassland sites over 30‐year periods. Relative to control vegetation (climate and site‐determined mixes of functional groups), the frequency and duration of drought were increased by shrubs and decreased by annual grasses. The rankings of shrubs, control vegetation, and annual grasses in terms of drought effects were generally consistent in current and future climates, suggesting that current differences among functional groups on drought effects predict future differences. Climate change accompanied by experimentally‐increased biomass (i.e. the effects of invasions that increase community biomass, or management that increases productivity through fertilization or respite from grazing) increased drought frequency and duration, and advanced drought onset. Our results suggest that the replacement of perennial temperate semiarid grasslands by shrubs, or increased biomass, can increase ecological drought both in current and future climates.

The role of frozen soil in groundwater discharge predictions for warming alpine watersheds

Released March 23, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Water Resources Research

Sarah G. Evans, Shemin Ge, Clifford I. Voss, Noah P. Molotch

Climate warming may alter the quantity and timing of groundwater discharge to streams in high alpine watersheds due to changes in the timing of the duration of seasonal freezing in the subsurface and snowmelt recharge. It is imperative to understand the effects of seasonal freezing and recharge on groundwater discharge to streams in warming alpine watersheds as streamflow originating from these watersheds is a critical water resource for downstream users. This study evaluates how climate warming may alter groundwater discharge due to changes in seasonally frozen ground and snowmelt using a 2‐D coupled flow and heat transport model with freeze and thaw capabilities for variably saturated media. The model is applied to a representative snowmelt‐dominated watershed in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado, USA, with snowmelt time series reconstructed from a 12 year data set of hydrometeorological records and satellite‐derived snow covered area. Model analyses indicate that the duration of seasonal freezing in the subsurface controls groundwater discharge to streams, while snowmelt timing controls groundwater discharge to hillslope faces. Climate warming causes changes to subsurface ice content and duration, rerouting groundwater flow paths but not altering the total magnitude of future groundwater discharge outside of the bounds of hydrologic parameter uncertainties. These findings suggest that frozen soil routines play an important role for predicting the future location of groundwater discharge in watersheds underlain by seasonally frozen ground.

Groundwater quality in the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

Released March 23, 2018 00:00 EST

2018, Open-File Report 2018-1047

Miranda S. Fram, Jennifer L. Shelton

Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking-water supplies.