Effects of chemically dispersed crude oil on mallard reproduction. Incubating female mallards were exposed to a water source treated with either Prudhoe Bay crude oil, Corexit 9527, or a combination of oil and dispersant during the first 10 da of development. Used thermocouple probes to monitor incubation temperature. Measured hatching success, incubation temperature, and survival of ducklings to 1 wk of age.
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Effects of an introduced pathogen and fire exclusion on the demography of sugar pine