Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were studied from April-1972 through April 1974 in the Superior National Forest in northeastern Minnesota by radio-tracking and simulated howling. Based on replies during 217 of 456 howling sessions, the following recommendations were derived for using simulated howling as a census technique: (1) the best times of day are dusk and night; (2) July, August, and September are the best months; (3) precipitation and winds greater than 12 km/hour should be aVQided; (4) a sequence of 5 single howls should be used, alternating 'flat' and 'breaking' howls; (5) trials should be repeated 3 times at about 2-minute intervals with the first trial at lower volume; and (6) the trial series should be repeated on 3 nights as close to each other as possible. Two censuses are described: a saturation census and a sampling census.
Additional publication details
An analysis of howling response parameters useful for wolf pack censusing