An analysis of howling response parameters useful for wolf pack censusing

Journal of Wildlife Management
By:  and 

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Abstract

Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were studied from April-1972 through April 1974 in the Superior National Forest in northeastern Minnesota by radio-tracking and simulated howling. Based on replies during 217 of 456 howling sessions, the following recommendations were derived for using simulated howling as a census technique: (1) the best times of day are dusk and night; (2) July, August, and September are the best months; (3) precipitation and winds greater than 12 km/hour should be aVQided; (4) a sequence of 5 single howls should be used, alternating 'flat' and 'breaking' howls; (5) trials should be repeated 3 times at about 2-minute intervals with the first trial at lower volume; and (6) the trial series should be repeated on 3 nights as close to each other as possible. Two censuses are described: a saturation census and a sampling census.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title An analysis of howling response parameters useful for wolf pack censusing
Series title Journal of Wildlife Management
Volume 46
Issue 3
Year Published 1982
Language English
Contributing office(s) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Description 686-693
Larger Work Type Article
Larger Work Subtype Journal Article
Larger Work Title Journal of Wildlife Management
First page 686
Last page 693