There was a high incidence of embryo mortality and deformities in black-necked stilts nesting at Kesterson Reservoir during both years of this study and in American avocets during 1985. The concentrations of selenium in eggs at Kesterson Reservoir were sufficiently elevated to have caused the reproductive problems observed. Selenium appears to be the primary cause of the recruitment failure of stilts and avocets at Kesterson Resevoir in 1984 and 1985.
Additional publication details
Recruitment failure in American avocets and black-necked stilts nesting at Kesterson Reservoir, California, 1984-1985