Manganese is a toxic element frequently overlooked when assessing toxicity of effluents, sediments and pore waters. Manganese can be present at toxic levels in anoxic solutions due to its increased solubility under chemically-reducing conditions, and it can remain at those levels for days in aerated test waters due to slow precipitation kinetics. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca are freshwater organisms often used for toxicity testing and recommended for assessments of effluents and pore waters. Lethal and reproductive-inhibition concentrations of Mn were determined for C. dubia in acute 48h tests and chronic 3-brood tests using animals <24 h old and between 24 and 48 h old. Sensitivity of H. azteca was determined with 7d old animals in acute 96h tests. Tests were run at three levels of water hardness to assess the amelioratory effect, which was often significant. Manganese concentrations were measured analytically at test initiation and after 96 h for calculations of toxicity endpoints and determinations of Mn precipitation during the tests. Minimal amounts of Mn (below 3%) precipitated within 96 h. LC50s determined for H. azteca progressively increased from 3.0 to 8.6 to 13.7 mg Mn/L in soft, moderately-hard and hard waters, respectively. The tolerance of C. dubia to Mn was not significantly different between moderately-hard and hard waters, but was significantly lower in soft water. There was no significant difference in Mn sensitivity between the ages of C. dubia tested. Acute LC50 values for C. dubia averaged 6.2, 14.5 and 15.2 mg Mn/L and chronic IC50 values averaged 3.9, 8.5 and 11.5 mg Mn/L for soft, moderately-hard and hard waters, respectively. Manganese toxicity should be considered when assessing solutions with concentrations near these levels.