Plant phenology in a cloud forest on the island of Maui, Hawaii

By: , and 



We recorded the times of flowering, fruiting, and leafing of ten native canopy and subcanopy trees and shrubs (monthly from December 1994 through December 1997) in a montane cloud forest with relatively aseasonal rainfall on the island of Maui, Hawaii. These species represented the great majority of individual woody plants at the site. Flowers and fruits were available in the community year-round; however, all species exhibited annual patterns of flowering, and four species showed annual patterns of fruiting while the rest fruited in supra-annual patterns. Many species had protracted flowering or fruiting peaks, and some bore small numbers of flowers or fruit year-round. Most species flowered in a monthly peak mainly between May and August, corresponding to the period of greatest solar irradiance and marginally higher temperatures. Fruit ripening followed at varying intervals. In contrast, the heaviest flowering occurred between November and March, resulting from bloom of the dominant tree, Metrosideros polymorpha. At the highest elevations, Metrosideros flowering was heaviest during September, but peak flowering of lower elevation trees occurred in late fall and winter. Two varieties of this species differed in their temporal and spatial patterns of flowering. For M. polymorpha var. polymorpha and var. incana, bloom peaked annually between November and January; however, for M. polymorpha var. glaberrima, flowering peaked from April through July, with a possible earlier secondary peak in January.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Plant phenology in a cloud forest on the island of Maui, Hawaii
Series title Biotropica
Volume 32
Issue 1
Year Published 2000
Language English
Contributing office(s) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Description 90-99
Larger Work Type Article
Larger Work Subtype Journal Article
Larger Work Title Biotropica
First page 90
Last page 99
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