Arsenic minerals commonly occurring in Carlin-type gold deposits include orpiment and realgar and, more rarely, native arsenic and arsenopyrite. Other arsenic-bearing phases present include arsenian pyrite and stibnite and a number of thallium and mercury sulfides. Under conditions of constant temperature and pressure, the relative stability of arsenic minerals is a function of sulfur activity. At high sulfur activity, orpiment is the stable phase. As sulfur activity is decreased, more sulfur-deficient arsenic phases become stable with the progressive formation of realgar, native arsenic, arsenopyrite, and finally, loellingite at very low sulfur activity. Three univariant equilibrium assemblages: orpiment plus realgar, realgar plus native arsenic and native arsenic plus arsenopyrite are useful indicators of sulfur activity and commonly occur in the epithermal environment.