This paper describes the distinctive spectral reflectance of these two carbonatites and their related rocks, and also discusses the possible use of spectral reflectance measurements for exploring carbonatites. Laboratory spectra recorded in the 0. 4-2. 5 micrometer wavelength range showed absorption features discussed in the abstract. High spectral-resolution airborne radiance measurements were obtained in the 0. 4-1. 0 micrometer and 2. 0-2. 5 micrometer wavelength ranges. Preliminary analysis of the airborne measurements at Mountain Pass showed neodymium-absorption bands over the mining area and in several undisturbed areas of carbonatite. The results indicate that spectral reflectance measurements may provide a rapid laboratory method for determining the presence of anomalously high rare earth (RE) content, and possibly, for estimating relative amounts of certain RE elements.