Results of seismologic studies conducted by the U.S. reconnaissance team in conjunction with Soviet colleagues following the tragic earthquakes of December 7, 1988, suggest that site conditions may have been a major factor in contributing to increased damage levels in Leninakan. As the potential severity of these effects in Leninakan had not been previously identified, this chapter presents results intended to provide a preliminary quantification of these effects on both damage and levels of ground motion observed in Leninakan. The article describes the damage distribution geologic setting, ground motion amplification in Leninakan, including analog amplifications and spectral amplifications. Preliminary model estimates for site response are presented. It is concluded that ground motion amplification in the 0.5-2.5-second period range was a major contributing factor to increased damage in Leninakan as compared with Kirovakan. Leninakan is located on thick water saturated alluvial deposits.