Unique amplitude characteristics of shallow gas sands within Pennsylvanian clastic-carbonate dominated sequences are discernible on high-resolution seismic reflection data in eastern Kansas. Upward grading sequences of sand into shale represent a potential gas reservoir with a low-impedence acoustic contrast at the base of the encasing layer. The gas sand and encasing shale, which define the gas reservoir studied here, are part of an erosional incised valley where about 30 m of carbonates and shale have been replaced by sandstone and shale confined to the incised valley. These consolidated geologic settings would normally possess high impedence gas sand reservoirs as defined by abrupt contacts between the gas sand and encasing shale. Based orr core and borehole logs, the gas sand studied here grades from sand into shale in a fashion analogous to that observed in classic low-impedance environments. Amplitude and phase characteristics of high-resolution seismic data across this approximately 400-m wide gas sand are indicative of a low-impedance reservoir. Shot gathers possess classic amplitude with offsett-dependent characteristics which are manifeted on the stacked section as "bright spots." Dominant Frequencies of around 120 Hz allow detection of several reflectors within the 30+ meters of sand/shale that make up this localized gas-rich incised valley fill. The gradational nature of the trapping mechanism observed in this gas reservoir would make detection with conventional seismic reflection methods unlikely.
Additional publication details
High-resolution seismic reflection to delineate shallow gas in Eastern Kansas