Geology and geochemistry of jasperoids from the Gold Bar district, Nevada

Mineralium Deposita

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Gold Bar is one of several Carlin-type gold mining districts located in the Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, Nevada. It is composed of one main deposit, Gold Bar; five satellite deposits; and four resources that contain 1.6 Moz (50 t) of gold. All of the deposits and resources occur at the intersection of north-northwest- and northeast-trending high-angle faults in slope facies limestones of the Devonian Nevada Group exposed in windows through Ordovician basin facies siliciclastic rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. Igneous intrusions and magnetic anomalies are notably absent. The Gold Bar district contains a variety of discordant and stratabound jasperoid bodies, especially along the Wall Fault zone, that were mapped and studied in some detail to identify the attributes of those most closely associated with gold ore and to constrain genetic models. Four types of jasperoids, J0, J1, J2, and J3, were distinguished on the basis of their geologic and structural settings and appearance. Field relations suggest that J0 formed during an early event. Petrographic observations, geochemistry, and ??18O values of quartz suggest it was overprinted by the hydrothermal event that produced ore-related J1, J2, and J3 jasperoids and associated gold deposits. The greater amount of siliciclastic detritus present in J0 jasperoids caused them to have higher ??18O values than J1,2,3 jasperoids hosted in underlying limestones. Ore-related jasperoids are composed of main-ore-stage replacements and late-ore-stage open-space filling quartz with variable geochemistry and an enormous range of ??18O values (24.5 and -3.7???). Jasperoids hosted in limestones with the most anomalous Au, Ag, Hg, ??(As, Sb, Tl) concentrations and the highest ??18O values are associated with the largest deposits. The 28??? range of jasperoid ??18O values is best explained by mixing between an 18O-enriched fluid and an 18O-depleted fluid. The positive correlation between the sizes of gold deposits and the ??18O composition of jasperoids indicates that gold was introduced by the 18O-enriched fluid. The lowest calculated ??18O value for water in equilibrium with late-ore-stage quartz at 200??C (-15???) and the measured ??D value of fluid inclusion water extracted from late-ore-stage orpiment and realgar (-116???) indicate that the 18O-depleted fluid was composed of relatively unexchanged meteoric water. The source of the 18O-enriched ore fluid is not constrained. The ??34S values of late-ore-stage realgar, orpiment, and stibnite (5.7-15.5???) and barite (31.5-40.9???) suggest that H2S and sulfate were derived from sedimentary sources. Likewise, the ??13C and ??18O values of late-stage calcite (-4.8 to 1.5??? and 11.5 to 17.4???, respectively) suggest that CO2 was derived from marine limestones. Based on these data and the apparent absence of any Eocene intrusions in the district, Gold Bar may be the product of a nonmagmatic hydrothermal system. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

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Geology and geochemistry of jasperoids from the Gold Bar district, Nevada
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Mineralium Deposita
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