Do females trade copulations for food? An experimental study on kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla)

Behavioral Ecology
By: , and 



Females of many species copulate more frequently than necessary to fertilize their eggs despite the potential costs. Several studies, particularly on socially monogamous birds, have suggested that females obtain immediate material benefits by trading copulations for nutrients or other resources. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by manipulating the food resources available to prelaying female black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). If female kittiwakes trade copulations for courtship feeding because they need the extra resources, well-fed females (experimental group) should be less willing to copulate compared with females that are more food limited (control group). Contrary to our predictions, we found that close to the start of laying experimental females copulated more frequently with their mate than control females. We also observed that males from the experimental group fed their mate at least as often as males from the control group. In experimental pairs, we still observed a positive correlation between the rate of copulation and the rate of courtship feeding. Our results thus refute the immediate material benefits hypothesis. Currently available data are consistent with the hypothesis that prelaying courtship feeding is a form of mating effort. We suggest that the rate of courtship feeding might be a sexually selected trait, on which females base decisions about timing and frequency of copulations, but this remains to be tested. ?? The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Do females trade copulations for food? An experimental study on kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla)
Series title Behavioral Ecology
DOI 10.1093/beheco/arl090
Volume 18
Issue 2
Year Published 2007
Language English
Larger Work Type Article
Larger Work Subtype Journal Article
Larger Work Title Behavioral Ecology
First page 345
Last page 353
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