As part of preparations in plans by The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) to inject CO2 in layered basalt, we numerically investigate seismic methods as a noninvasive monitoring technique. Basalt seems to have geochemical advantages as a reservoir for CO2 storage (CO2 mineralizes quite rapidly while exposed to basalt), but poses a considerable challenge in term of seismic monitoring: strong scattering from the layering of the basalt complicates surface seismic imaging. We perform numerical tests using the Spectral Element Method (SEM) to identify possibilities and limitations of seismic monitoring of CO2 sequestration in a basalt reservoir. While surface seismic is unlikely to detect small physical changes in the reservoir due to the injection of CO2, the results from Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) simulations are encouraging. As a perturbation, we make a 5%; change in wave velocity, which produces significant changes in VSP images of pre-injection and post-injection conditions. Finally, we perform an analysis using Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), to quantify these changes in the reservoir properties due to CO2 injection.
Additional publication details
Numerical modeling of time-lapse monitoring of CO2 sequestration in a layered basalt reservoir