During the winter months, the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois is subject to bi-directional flows, and density currents are thought to be responsible for these flow variations. This paper presents detailed field measurements using three acoustic Doppler current profiler instruments and simultaneous water-quality measurements made during December 2005. Observations indicate that the formation of density currents within the Chicago River and density differences are mostly due to salinity differences between the North Branch and the main stem of the Chicago River, whereas temperature difference does not appreciably affect the creation of density currents. Sources of higher water temperature, conductivity, and salinity values should be addressed in future studies. ?? 2007 ASCE.