During the twentieth century, several methods to assess the stability of slopes during earthquakes were developed. Pseudostatic analysis was the earliest method; it involved simply adding a permanent body force representing the earthquake shaking to a static limit-equilibrium analysis. Stress-deformation analysis, a later development, involved much more complex modeling of slopes using a mesh in which the internal stresses and strains within elements are computed based on the applied external loads, including gravity and seismic loads. Stress-deformation analysis provided the most realistic model of slope behavior, but it is very complex and requires a high density of high-quality soil-property data as well as an accurate model of soil behavior. In 1965, Newmark developed a method that effectively bridges the gap between these two types of analysis. His sliding-block model is easy to apply and provides a useful index of co-seismic slope performance. Subsequent modifications to sliding-block analysis have made it applicable to a wider range of landslide types. Sliding-block analysis provides perhaps the greatest utility of all the types of analysis. It is far easier to apply than stress-deformation analysis, and it yields much more useful information than does pseudostatic analysis. ?? 2010.