The production and consumption of industrial minerals in the United States traditionally have played important roles in mining and in the supply of the bulk of basic raw materials to the economy. This diverse group of minerals extracted and consumed by a variety of industries accounts, on a weight and volume basis, for most mineral-based products consumed in our economy. Industrial minerals form the bulk of the basic raw-materials feedstock for most of the construction, agricultural, and inorganic-chemical-manufacturing sectors, and a good portion of the transportation, manufacturing, organic chemical, and service sectors of the U.S. economy. In this presentation, I discuss current estimates of the amount and value of industrial minerals mined compared with all mining in 1997. I then present a summary of 1997 production of industrial minerals by several end-use industries. This is followed by a historical perspective of the consumption of industrial minerals as a subset of all basic materials, with special emphasis on the aggregates industry. The presentation concludes with a look at the geographic distribution of industrial operations in the United States and some thoughts about the future.