Breeding ecology of Dusky Flycatchers (Empidonax oberholseri) was studied in western Montana from May-August 1974. Dusky Flycatchers were monogamous and single-brooded although some pairs made renesting attempts after first nests failed. Length of the reproductive cycle for first nesting attempts, from arrival on the breeding grounds to fledging, was about 70 days. All nests were placed in shrubs, primarily ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus) and Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum), and were an average of 150 cm above the ground. Females incubated a clutch with an average of 4.0 eggs for 15-16 days, and the average nestling period was 17.5 days. Both sexes fed nestlings and fledglings, but only females brooded nestlings. Egg survival was 63.8%, hatching success was 95.4%, and nestling survival was 61.9% for an overall probability of 0.376 percent that an egg produced a fledgling. Predation was the major cause of nest failure. Dusky Flycatchers reared an average of 1.9 fledglings/pair.