Too much sediment and too little water are related problems in China’s Yellow River Basin. Sediment yield in the basin averages about 2,100 t/(km2·a), greatest is of the world’s large rivers although the Yellow River ranks 31st in mean flow. A quarter of the sediment deposited in the 780-km lower reach, causing bed levels to rise an average of a meter per decade wang and other. Sediment aggradation along this reach is concentrated between dikes, resulting in average river-bed elevations 5 m higher, and at Xinxiang as much as 10 m higher, than surrounding bottomlands. The dikes, which have breached nearly 1,600 times in the last 24 centuries, reduce the threat of flooding for 85-million people on 120,000 km2 in five provinces of northeastern China (Decun, undated). This paper addresses some environmental and social factors related to this problem, and provides descriptions of two United States rivers that exhibit some analogous responses, albeit not to the extent of those associated with the Yellow River, “China’s Sorrow”.