Investigating endocrine and physiological parameters of captive American kestrels exposed by diet to selected organophosphate flame retardants

Environmental Science & Technology
Fernie KJ, Letcher, R, Environment Canada; Palace V, Peters L, Stantec Consulting Ltd; Basu N, McGill University
By: , and 

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Abstract

Organophosphate triesters are high production volume additive flame retardants (OPFRs) and plasticizers. Shown to accumulate in abiotic and biotic environmental compartments, little is known about the risks they pose. Captive adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed the same dose (22 ng OPFR/g kestrel/d) daily (21 d) of tris(2- butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), or tris(1,2-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). Concentrations were undetected in tissues (renal, hepatic), suggesting rapid metabolism. There were no changes in glutathione status, indicators of hepatic oxidative status, or the cholinergic system (i.e., cerebrum, plasma cholinesterases; cerebrum muscarinic, nicotinic receptors). Modest changes occurred in hepatocyte integrity and function (clinical chemistry). Significant effects on plasma free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations occurred with exposure to TBOEP, TCEP, TCIPP, and TDCIPP; TBOEP and TCEP had additional overall effects on free thyroxine (FT4), whereas TDCIPP also influenced total thyroxine (TT4). Relative increases (32%−96%) in circulating FT3, TT3, FT4, and/or TT4 were variable with each OPFR at 7 d exposure, but limited thereafter, which was likely maintained through decreased thyroid gland activity and increased hepatic deiodinase activity. The observed physiological and endocrine effects occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations and suggest parent OPFRs or metabolites may have been present despite rapid degradation.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Investigating endocrine and physiological parameters of captive American kestrels exposed by diet to selected organophosphate flame retardants
Series title Environmental Science & Technology
DOI 10.1021/acs.est.5b00857
Volume 49
Issue 12
Year Published 2015
Language English
Publisher American Chemical Society
Publisher location Easton, PA
Contributing office(s) Contaminant Biology Program, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Description 8 p.
First page 7448
Last page 7455
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N