Characterizing supraglacial meltwater channel hydraulics on the Greenland Ice Sheet from in situ observations

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms
By: , and 

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Abstract

Supraglacial rivers on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) transport large volumes of surface meltwater toward the ocean, yet have received relatively little direct research. This study presents field observations of channel width, depth, velocity, and water surface slope for nine supraglacial channels on the southwestern GrIS collected between 23 July and 20 August, 2012. Field sites are located up to 74 km inland and span 494-1485 m elevation, and contain measured discharges larger than any previous in situ study: from 0.006 to 23.12 m3/s in channels 0.20 to 20.62 m wide. All channels were deeply incised with near vertical banks, and hydraulic geometry results indicate that supraglacial channels primarily accommodate greater discharges by increasing velocity. Smaller streams had steeper water surface slopes (0.74-8.83%) than typical in terrestrial settings, yielding correspondingly high velocities (0.40-2.60 m/s) and Froude numbers (0.45-3.11) with supercritical flow observed in 54% of measurements. Derived Manning's n values were larger and more variable than anticipated from channels of uniform substrate, ranging from 0.009 to 0.154 with a mean value of 0.035 +/- 0.027 despite the absence of sediment, debris, or other roughness elements. Ubiquitous micro-depressions in shallow sections of the channel bed may explain some of these roughness values. However, we find that other, unobserved sources of flow resistance likely contributed to these elevated n values: future work should explicitly consider additional sources of flow resistance beyond bed roughness in supraglacial channels. We conclude that hydraulic modelling for these channels must allow for both sub- and supercritical flow, and most importantly must refrain from assuming that all ice-substrate channels exhibit similar hydraulic behavior, especially for Froude numbers and Manning's n. Finally, this study highlights that further theoretical and empirical work on supraglacial channel hydraulics is necessary before broad scale understanding of ice sheet hydrology can be achieved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Characterizing supraglacial meltwater channel hydraulics on the Greenland Ice Sheet from in situ observations
Series title Earth Surface Processes and Landforms
DOI 10.1002/esp.3977
Volume 41
Issue 14
Year Published 2016
Language English
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Contributing office(s) National Research Program - Central Branch
Description 12 p.
First page 2111
Last page 2122
Country Greenland
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N