Geochemistry and ground-water movement in northwestern Minnesota
The relation between water quality and water movement within the ground-water reservoir may be better understood if studies of flow systems are used in conjunction with hydrochemical methods. Within small watersheds, local, intermediate, and regional flow systems may develop, depending upon the shape, the relief, and the thickness of the ground-water reservoir. Lateral and vertical variations of water quality in the ground-water reservoir reflect the difference in length of flow paths within a system. The relative ion concentration of the major ions in solution in ground waters change as water moves from recharge areas to discharge areas. These changes are used to interpret the direction and rate of ground-water movement.
Ground-water types mapped in the Two Rivers watershed of northwestern Minnesota indicate that calcium bicarbonate type water occurs near the source of recharge and progressively changes to the sulfate type as water moves downgradient toward the discharge area. Local recharge areas are indicated by the greater penetration of calcium bicarbonate waters into the ground-water reservoir. The calcrum bicarbonate type water of surface streams during low flow indicates that water moves into the stream from the upper part of the ground-water reservoir. Chloride type water moves from the Paleozoic rocks and mixes with water in the glacial drift probably at places where permeable zones in the Paleozoic rocks are in contact with the overlying drift.
Additional publication details
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Title||Geochemistry and ground-water movement in northwestern Minnesota|
|Publisher||National Groundwater Association|
|Publisher location||Herndon, VA|
|Contributing office(s)||Minnesota Water Science Center|
|Online Only (Y/N)||N|
|Additional Online Files (Y/N)||N|
|Google Analytic Metrics||Metrics page|