Mitigating amphibian disease: strategies to maintain wild populations and control chytridiomycosis

Frontiers in Zoology
By: , and 

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Abstract

Background

Rescuing amphibian diversity is an achievable conservation challenge. Disease mitigation is one essential component of population management. Here we assess existing disease mitigation strategies, some in early experimental stages, which focus on the globally emerging chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. We discuss the precedent for each strategy in systems ranging from agriculture to human medicine, and the outlook for each strategy in terms of research needs and long-term potential.

Results

We find that the effects of exposure to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis occur on a spectrum from transient commensal to lethal pathogen. Management priorities are divided between (1) halting pathogen spread and developing survival assurance colonies, and (2) prophylactic or remedial disease treatment. Epidemiological models of chytridiomycosis suggest that mitigation strategies can control disease without eliminating the pathogen. Ecological ethics guide wildlife disease research, but several ethical questions remain for managing disease in the field.

Conclusions

Because sustainable conservation of amphibians in nature is dependent on long-term population persistence and co-evolution with potentially lethal pathogens, we suggest that disease mitigation not focus exclusively on the elimination or containment of the pathogen, or on the captive breeding of amphibian hosts. Rather, successful disease mitigation must be context specific with epidemiologically informed strategies to manage already infected populations by decreasing pathogenicity and host susceptibility. We propose population level treatments based on three steps: first, identify mechanisms of disease suppression; second, parameterize epizootiological models of disease and population dynamics for testing under semi-natural conditions; and third, begin a process of adaptive management in field trials with natural populations.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Mitigating amphibian disease: strategies to maintain wild populations and control chytridiomycosis
Series title Frontiers in Zoology
DOI 10.1186/1742-9994-8-8
Volume 8
Issue 8
Year Published 2011
Language English
Publisher BioMed Central
Contributing office(s) Fort Collins Science Center
Description 23 p.
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N