Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus): Spreading by fire

Forest Ecology and Management
By: , and 

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Abstract

In many forest ecosystems, fire is critical in maintaining indigenous plant communities, but can either promote or arrest the spread of invasive species depending on their regeneration niche and resprouting ability. We examined the effects of cutting and burning treatments on the vegetative response (cover, stem density) and root resources of Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), a liana invasive to North America that was introduced from East Asia. Treatments were control, spring cut, spring burn, spring cut & burn, summer cut, fall cut, fall burn, fall cut & burn, and fall herbicide. Cover was reduced the greatest by herbicide and summer cutting treatments, but increased more in the second year on moraine soils than on sandy soils. Burning and cutting & burning combined resulted in a resprout density four times greater than stem density prior to treatment for stems <2.5 mm diameter than cutting alone. For stems, across all diameter classes, there was a more than 100% increase in stem density with burning and almost a 300% increase in stem density with cutting & burning in the spring. Density of resprouts and root-suckers, and survival increased with increasing stem size. While cutting of C. orbiculatus during the growing season (summer) reduced total nonstructural carbohydrates by 50% below early growing season levels and 75% below dormant season levels, burning did not significantly reduce total nonstructural carbohydrates. Thus, Oriental bittersweet is quite responsive to burning as a disturbance and resprouting and root-suckering creates additional opportunities for growth and attainment of the forest canopy. The positive response of Oriental bittersweet to burning has important implications for management of invasive lianas in fire-dependent forest landscapes.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus): Spreading by fire
Series title Forest Ecology and Management
DOI 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.12.036
Volume 364
Year Published 2016
Language English
Publisher Elsevier
Contributing office(s) Great Lakes Science Center
Description 12 p.
First page 183
Last page 194
Country United States
State Indiana
County Lake County, Porter County
Other Geospatial Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N