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Collecting a better water-quality sample: Reducing vertical stratification bias in open and closed channels

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Abstract

Collection of water-quality samples that accurately characterize average particle concentrations and distributions in channels can be complicated by large sources of variability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a fully automated Depth-Integrated Sample Arm (DISA) as a way to reduce bias and improve accuracy in water-quality concentration data. The DISA was designed to integrate with existing autosampler configurations commonly used for the collection of water-quality samples in vertical profile thereby providing a better representation of average suspended sediment and sediment-associated pollutant concentrations and distributions than traditional fixed-point samplers. In controlled laboratory experiments, known concentrations of suspended sediment ranging from 596 to 1,189 mg/L were injected into a 3 foot diameter closed channel (circular pipe) with regulated flows ranging from 1.4 to 27.8 ft3 /s. Median suspended sediment concentrations in water-quality samples collected using the DISA were within 7 percent of the known, injected value compared to 96 percent for traditional fixed-point samplers. Field evaluation of this technology in open channel fluvial systems showed median differences between paired DISA and fixed-point samples to be within 3 percent. The range of particle size measured in the open channel was generally that of clay and silt. Differences between the concentration and distribution measured between the two sampler configurations could potentially be much larger in open channels that transport larger particles, such as sand.

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Conference Paper
Publication Subtype:
Conference Paper
Title:
Collecting a better water-quality sample: Reducing vertical stratification bias in open and closed channels
Year Published:
2017
Language:
English
Publisher:
Department of Interior
Publisher location:
Reston, VA
Contributing office(s):
Wisconsin Water Science Center
Description:
11 p.
Larger Work Type:
Book
Larger Work Subtype:
Conference publication
Larger Work Title:
Proceedings of the 5th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference and the 10th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference
Conference Title:
Joint Federal Interagency Conference 2015
Conference Location:
Reno, NV
Conference Date:
April 19-23, 2015