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Occurrence of dichloroacetamide herbicide safeners and co-applied herbicides in midwestern U.S. streams

Environmental Science & Technology Letters

By:
ORCID iD , ORCID iD , and ORCID iD
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00505

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Abstract

Dichloroacetamide safeners (e.g., AD-67, benoxacor, dichlormid, and furilazole) are co-applied with chloroacetanilide herbicides to protect crops from herbicide toxicity. While such safeners have been used since the early 1970s, there are minimal data about safener usage, occurrence in streams, or potential ecological effects. This study focused on one of these research gaps, occurrence in streams. Seven Midwestern U.S. streams (five in Iowa and two in Illinois), with extensive row-crop agriculture, were sampled at varying frequencies from spring 2016 through summer 2017. All four safeners were detected at least once; furilazole was the most frequently detected (31%), followed by benoxacor (29%), dichlormid (15%), and AD-67 (2%). The maximum concentrations ranged from 42 to 190 ng/L. Stream detections and concentrations of safeners appear to be driven by a combination of timing of application (spring following herbicide application) and precipitation events. Detected concentrations were below known toxicity levels for aquatic organisms.

Study Area

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Occurrence of dichloroacetamide herbicide safeners and co-applied herbicides in midwestern U.S. streams
Series title:
Environmental Science & Technology Letters
DOI:
10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00505
Edition:
Online First
Year Published:
2017
Language:
English
Publisher:
ACS
Contributing office(s):
California Water Science Center
Country:
United States
State:
Illinois, Iowa