Potential secondary hazards of Avitrol baits to sharp-shinned hawks and american kestrels

Journal of Wildlife Management
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Abstract

Avitrol© is the registered trade name of a number of proprietary bird control products containing the active ingredient 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Several formulations of Avitrol are available to pest control applicators for use in agricultural areas. Although individual treated bait particles contain from 0.5 to 3.0% 4-AP, the amount present in the 14 federally registered products ranges from 0.3 to 1.0%, depending on the proportion of treated to untreated particles in the ready-to-use baits. Individual birds in depredating flocks ingesting 1 or more of the treated particles exhibit erratic behavior which frightens other birds in the flock. Numerous published references are available which describe the use and results of 1 or more of these products under a variety of conditions (Goodhue and Baumgartner 1965, DeGrazio et al. 1972, Stickley et al. 1972, Dolbeer et al. 1976, Stickley et al. 1976, Besser and Guarino 1977, Knittle et al. 1977, Mott 1977, Stick ley et al. 1977, Besser 1978, Woronecki et al. 1979).

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Potential secondary hazards of Avitrol baits to sharp-shinned hawks and american kestrels
Series title Journal of Wildlife Management
DOI 10.2307/3808657
Volume 46
Issue 2
Year Published 1982
Language English
Publisher Wiley
Description 6 p.
First page 457
Last page 462