Genetic implications of bottleneck effects of differing severities on genetic diversity in naturally recovering populations: An example from Hawaiian coot and Hawaiian gallinule

Ecology and Evolution
By: , and 

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Abstract

The evolutionary trajectory of populations through time is influenced by the interplay of forces (biological, evolutionary, and anthropogenic) acting on the standing genetic variation. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial loci to examine the influence of population declines, of varying severity, on genetic diversity within two Hawaiian endemic waterbirds, the Hawaiian coot and Hawaiian gallinule, by comparing historical (samples collected in the late 1800s and early 1900s) and modern (collected in 2012–2013) populations. Population declines simultaneously experienced by Hawaiian coots and Hawaiian gallinules differentially shaped the evolutionary trajectory of these two populations. Within Hawaiian coot, large reductions (between −38.4% and −51.4%) in mitochondrial diversity were observed, although minimal differences were observed in the distribution of allelic and haplotypic frequencies between sampled time periods. Conversely, for Hawaiian gallinule, allelic frequencies were strongly differentiated between time periods, signatures of a genetic bottleneck were detected, and biases in means of the effective population size were observed at microsatellite loci. The strength of the decline appears to have had a greater influence on genetic diversity within Hawaiian gallinule than Hawaiian coot, coincident with the reduction in census size. These species exhibit similar life history characteristics and generation times; therefore, we hypothesize that differences in behavior and colonization history are likely playing a large role in how allelic and haplotypic frequencies are being shaped through time. Furthermore, differences in patterns of genetic diversity within Hawaiian coot and Hawaiian gallinule highlight the influence of demographic and evolutionary processes in shaping how species respond genetically to ecological stressors.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Genetic implications of bottleneck effects of differing severities on genetic diversity in naturally recovering populations: An example from Hawaiian coot and Hawaiian gallinule
Series title Ecology and Evolution
DOI 10.1002/ece3.3530
Volume 7
Issue 23
Year Published 2017
Language English
Publisher Wiley
Contributing office(s) Alaska Science Center Biology WTEB
Description 10 p.
First page 9925
Last page 9934