Herbicides and herbivory interact to drive plant community and crop‐tree establishment

Ecological Applications
By: , and 

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Abstract

Land management practices often directly alter vegetation structure and composition, but the degree to which ecological processes such as herbivory interact with management to influence biodiversity is less well understood. We hypothesized that large herbivores compound the effects of intensive forest management on early seral plant communities and plantation establishment (i.e., tree survival and growth), and the degree of such effects is dependent on the intensity of management practices. We established 225 m2 wild‐ungulate (deer and elk) exclosures, nested within a manipulated gradient of management intensity (no‐herbicide Control, Light herbicide, Moderate herbicide and Intensive herbicide treatments), replicated at the scale of whole harvest units (10‐19 ha). Vegetation structure, composition and crop‐tree responses to herbivory varied across the gradient of herbicide application during the first two years of stand establishment, with herbivory effects most evident at intermediate herbicide treatments. In the Moderate herbicide treatment – which approximates treatments applied to > 2.5 million hectares in Pacific Northwest U.S.A. – foraging by deer and elk resulted in simplified, low‐cover plant communities more closely resembling the Intensive herbicide treatment. Herbivory further suppressed the growth of competing vegetation in the Light herbicide treatment, improving crop‐tree survival, and providing early evidence of an ecosystem service. By changing community composition and vegetation structure, intensive forest management alters foraging selectivity and subsequent plant‐herbivore interactions; initial shifts in early seral communities are likely to influence understory plant communities and tree growth in later stages of forest development.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Herbicides and herbivory interact to drive plant community and crop‐tree establishment
Series title Ecological Applications
DOI 10.1002/eap.1777
Edition Online First
Year Published 2018
Language English
Publisher Ecological Society of America
Contributing office(s) Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center
Country United States
State Oregon