Serologic evidence for influenza A virus exposure in three loon species (Gavia spp.) breeding in Alaska

Journal of Wildlife Diseases
By: , and 



Limited information exists on exposure to influenza A viruses (IAVs) in many wild waterbird species, including loons. We analyzed serum samples from breeding adult Pacific (Gavia pacifica), Red-throated (G. stellata), and Yellow-billed Loons (G. adamsii) sampled at three locations along the coast of Alaska from 2008-2017 to gain a better understanding of the potential role loons play in IAV ecology in Alaska. We screened loon sera for IAV antibodies using three tests, blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), and hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and examined patterns in seroprevalence among species and sampling locations. We found evidence of IAV infection in all three loon species and at three different breeding locations although concordance was low among serological tests. Diagnostic tests yielded seroprevalence estimates of 24% with bELISA (42/172), 8% with AGID (5/60), and 6% with HI (4/70). IAV subtypes to which loon sera reacted using HI were consistent with those detected in waterfowl and gulls at other locations in Alaska, suggesting that loons may be exposed to IAVs maintained in sympatric waterbirds. Our study provides evidence that loons inhabiting Alaska are exposed to IAVs; however, given the lack of concordance among serologic tests, and relatively low seroprevalence as compared to other avian taxa exposed to IAVs in Alaska, they make poor IAV surveillance targets.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Serologic evidence for influenza A virus exposure in three loon species (Gavia spp.) breeding in Alaska
Series title Journal of Wildlife Diseases
DOI 10.7589/2018-06-165
Volume 55
Issue 4
Year Published 2019
Language English
Publisher Wildlife Disease Association
Contributing office(s) Alaska Science Center Biology WTEB
Description 6 p.
Country United States
State Alaska