Submarine encrustation of a Byzantine nail

Journal of Sedimentary Research
By:  and 



Virtually all iron objects recovered from a 7th century Byzantine shipwreck off the coast of Turkey were encrusted with a carbonate-rich layer. Mineralogical and chemical examination reveals limonite, siderite, and aragonite as dominant authigenic phases. The encrustations can be explained by oxidation (corrosion) of the metal in sea water. Analogous processes are suggested for many concretions formed around metallic nuclei in sea water.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Submarine encrustation of a Byzantine nail
Series title Journal of Sedimentary Research
DOI 10.1306/74D71AC3-2B21-11D7-8648000102C1865D
Volume 38
Issue 3
Year Published 1968
Language English
Publisher American Geological Institute
Contributing office(s) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Description 4 p.
First page 950
Last page 953
Country Turkey
Other Geospatial Yassi Ada Island
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