Sandhill cranes (Antigone canadensis) inhabiting the midcontinent of North America have been hunted since the 1960s under management goals of maintaining abundance, retaining geographic distribution, and maximizing sustainable harvest. Some biologists have raised concerns regarding harvest sustainability because sandhill cranes have lower reproductive rates than other game birds. We summarized demographic information in an age-structured matrix model to better understand population dynamics and harvest. Population indices and recovered harvest since the early 1980s suggest midcontinent sandhill cranes have experienced an average long-term annual growth of 0.9%; meanwhile, harvest has increased 1.8% annually. We found that adult survival and recruitment rates estimated from field data required modest adjustments (1-3%) so that model-derived growth rates matched growth estimated from a long-term survey (0.887 adult survival and 0.199 females per breeding female). Considering 0.9% long-term annual growth, sandhill cranes could be harvested at a rate of 6.6% if harvest was additive to natural mortality (assumed to be 0.05) or 11.3% if harvest and natural mortality was compensatory. Life-history characteristics for long-lived organisms and demographic evidence suggested that hunter harvest was primarily additive. Differential harvest rates of segments of midcontinent sandhill cranes derived from differential exposure to hunting suggested potentially unsustainable harvest for greater sandhill cranes (A. c. tabida) from 2 breeding segments. Overall, demographic evidence suggests that the harvest of midcontinent sandhill cranes has been managed sustainably. Monitoring activities that reduce nuisance variation and estimate vital and harvest rates by subspecies would support continued management of sandhill cranes that are of great interest to hunters and bird watchers.
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Title||Population and harvest dynamics of midcontinent sandhill cranes|
|Series title||Journal of Wildlife Management|
|Contributing office(s)||Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center|
|Other Geospatial||Central Platte River Valley|
|Google Analytic Metrics||Metrics page|