Constraints on eruption processes and event masses for the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska, through evaluation of IASI satellite SO2 masses and complementary datasets

Bulletin of Volcanology
By: , and 

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Abstract

Bogoslof volcano, Alaska, experienced at least 70 explosive eruptions between 12 December 2016 and 31 August 2017. Due to its remote location and limited local monitoring network, this eruption was monitored and characterized primarily using remote geophysical and satellite techniques. SO2 emissions from Bogoslof were persistently detected by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite sensors. Of Bogoslof’s 70 explosive events, 50% produced measurable SO2 masses ranging from 0.1 to 21.5 kt, with a median and standard deviation of 0.7 ± 4.0 kt SO2, respectively. Here, we compare IASI-derived SO2 masses from Bogoslof events to complementary geophysical datasets to provide insights into eruption source processes, namely the degree of seawater scrubbing of water-soluble SO2 and variations in magma flux. Correlations with the number of lightning strokes and infrasound energy are expected to indicate magma-flux as a controlling process, while correlations with infrasound frequency index are expected to indicate variations in vent-water content as a controlling factor. These comparisons suggest that the measured SO2 masses are primarily a function of eruption magnitude (degassed magma mass) and that scrubbing of SO2 emissions by vent seawater may have exerted a minor effect on the observed SO2 masses. SO2 masses were combined with petrologic constraints on melt inclusion and matrix glass S concentrations to calculate degassed magma masses and volumes. The cumulative SO2-derived degassed magma mass and estimated volume (dense-rock equivalent) for the full Bogoslof eruption were found to be 2.8 × 1010 kg and 9.3 × 106 m3, respectively. When individual event masses are compared against event masses calculated using an empirical plume-height method, a strong correlation is found (R2 = 0.83), with better than order-of-magnitude agreement in most cases. These estimates of eruption masses provide useful information on the magnitude, behavior, and associated hazards of the 2016–2017 eruption, and potentially future unrest at Bogoslof volcano.

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Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Constraints on eruption processes and event masses for the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska, through evaluation of IASI satellite SO2 masses and complementary datasets
Series title Bulletin of Volcanology
DOI 10.1007/s00445-019-1348-z
Volume 82
Year Published 2020
Language English
Publisher Springer
Contributing office(s) Volcano Science Center
Description 17, 17 p.
Country United States
State Alaska
Other Geospatial Bogoslof volcano
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