How to shape the anticipated build-out of industrial-scale renewable energy in a way that minimizes risk to wildlife remains contentious. This challenge is well-illustrated in the grasslands and shrub-steppe of North America. Here, several endemic species of grouse are the focus of intensive, long-term conservation action by a host of governmental and non-governmental entities, many of whom are now asking: will anticipated increases in the number of wind-energy facilities exacerbate declines or prevent recovery of these species? To help answer this question, we synthesized the potential consequences of wind-energy development on prairie grouse. Published literature on behavior or demography of prairie-grouse at wind-energy facilities is sparse, with studies having been conducted at only 5 different facilities in the United States. Only two of these studies met the standard for robust impact analysis by collecting pre-construction data and using control sites or gradient designs. Published results from only one of the species Greater Prairie-Chicken were available for >1 facility. Most studies also drew conclusions based on short (<4 years) periods of study, which is potentially problematic when studying these highly philopatric species. Given these caveats, we found that, in the short-term, adult survival and nest success appear largely unaffected in populations exposed to wind-energy facilities. However, changes in habitat use by female Greater Sage-Grouse and female Greater Prairie-Chicken during some seasons and reduced lek persistence among male Greater Prairie-Chickens near wind turbines suggest behavioral responses that may have demographic consequences. Prairie grouse can coexist with wind-energy facilities in some cases, at least in the short term, but important uncertainties remain, including the potential for long-term, cumulative effects of the extensive development expected as states attempt to meet goals for generating electricity from renewable sources.