Effects of Hydrocarbon Extraction on Landscapes of the Appalachian Basin
Fact Sheet 2015-3064
- Terry E. Slonecker, Lesley E. Milheim, Coral M. Roig-Silva, and Siddiq S. Kalaly
An important and sometimes overlooked aspect of contemporary natural gas exploration, development, and delivery activities is the geographic profile and spatial footprint that these activities have on the land surface. The function of many ecosystems and the goods and services they provide, in large part, are the result of their natural spatial arrangement on the landscape. Shale-gas development can create alterations to the pattern of land use and land cover, and represents a specific form of land use and land cover change that can substantially impact critical aspects of the spatial pattern, form, and function of landscape interactions, including many biological responses.
The need for energy resources has created numerous economic opportunities for hydrocarbon extraction in the Appalachian basin. The development of alternative energy natural gas resources from deep-shale drilling techniques, along with conventional natural gas extraction methods, has created a flurry of wells, roads, pipelines, and related infrastructure across many parts of the region. An unintended and sometimes overlooked consequence of these activities is their effect on the structure and function of the landscape and ecosystems. The collective effect of over 100,000 hydrocarbon extraction permits for oil, coal bed methane, Marcellus and Utica Shale natural gas wells, and other types of hydrocarbon gases and their associated infrastructure has saturated much of the landscape and disturbed the natural environment in the Appalachian basin. The disturbance created by the sheer magnitude of the development of these collective wells and infrastructure directly affects how the landscape and ecosystems function and how they provide ecological goods and services.
Slonecker, E.T., Milheim, L.E., Roig-Silva, C.M., and Kalaly, S.S., 2015, Effects of hydrocarbon extraction on landscapes of the Appalachian basin: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2015–3064, 2 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/fs20153064.
ISSN: 2327-6932 (online)
Additional publication details
- Publication type:
- Publication Subtype:
- USGS Numbered Series
- Effects of Hydrocarbon Extraction on Landscapes of the Appalachian Basin
- Series title:
- Fact Sheet
- Series number:
- Year Published:
- U.S. Geological Survey
- Publisher location:
- Reston, VA
- Contributing office(s):
- Eastern Geographic Science Center
- 2 p.
- United States
- New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia
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