Test-observation well near Odessa, Washington: description and preliminary results

Open-File Report 72-441

Prepared in cooperation with the State of Washington Department of Ecology
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The test-observation well drilled near Odessa, Wash., provides information on the area's aquifer characteristics which is not otherwise available from existing deep irrigation wells. The information is of value to the State of Washington Department of Ecology in its management decisions in this area where heavy ground-water withdrawals have resulted in increasing annual water-level declines.

The 10-inch well is 750 feet deep and penetrates six aquifer zones (A through F) in basalt. The upper 60 feet of the well is cased while the remainder of the hole is open in the basalt. The well was test pumped during drilling and showed specific capacities of (1) 0.65 gpm (gallon per minute) per foot of drawdown when at the 258-foot depth and open to aquifers A and B. (2) 0.62 gpm per foot of drawdown when at the 540-foot depth and open to aquifers A through D, and (3) 22 gpm foot of drawdown when at full 750-foot depth and open to all six aquifers.

To supplement the driller's log of the well, borehole geophysical logging provided information on natural gamma radiation, water temperature and resistivity, downhole movement (via flowmeter) of the water, and borehole diameter (via caliper log). Upon completion of the well each aquifer zone was isolated from the others by cement seals, and piezometer pipes were installed to each zone to allow definition of the vertical hydraulic gradient and an estimate of the vertical ground-water movement in the area, along with chemical-quality sampling of the various zones and monitoring of any changes in water quality with time. The initial measurements of water levels showed that the levels generally decrease with aquifer depth, with about 200 feet of head difference existing between the uppermost and lowermost aquifer zones. Another pipe, installed for providing thermometer access, permits recording the geothermal gradient with depth in the well, and provides another basis for estimating vertical ground-water movement in the area.

Prior to isolation of the various aquifer zones, the composite water level was recovering from the cessation of pumping at the end of the 1970 irrigation season. On April 6, 1971, this composite water level had begun declining, presumably as a result of p[umping of an irrigation well 1 mile to the northwest, By May 6, after the aquifer zones had been isolated and piezometer pieces installed, water levels in aquifers E and F had declined 11 feet in 15 days, in response to pumping for irrigation in the area. Water levels in aquifers B, C, and D declined somewhat, but mostly in response to the draining of these aquifers to deeper aquifers down the many deep-well boreholes in the area.

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USGS Numbered Series
Test-observation well near Odessa, Washington: description and preliminary results
Series title:
Open-File Report
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U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location:
Tacoma, WA
iii, 25 p.
United States