Level II scour analysis for Bridge 52 (CHESTH00100052) on Town Highway 10, crossing the South branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont
Open-File Report 98-12
Prepared in cooperation with Vermont Agency of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration
- Emily C. Wild and Michael A. Ivanoff
This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESTH00100052 on Town Highway 10 crossing the South Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.
The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 4.05-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge.
In the study area, the South Branch Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 35 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 82.1 mm (0.269 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 21, 1996, indicated that the reach was unstable, as a result of the moderate bank erosion.
The Town Highway 10 crossing of the South Branch Williams River is a 32-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 29-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 31, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 27.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 20 degrees.
A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed at the downstream end of the right abutment during the Level I assessment. The only scour protection measure at the site was type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) along the upstream left and right banks, the upstream end of the upstream right wingwall and the entire base length of the upstream left wingwall. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and appendices D and E.
Scour depths and recommended rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and Davis, 1995) for the 100- and 500-year discharges. In addition, the incipient roadway-overtopping discharge was determined and analyzed as another potential worst-case scour scenario. Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows.
Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 5.2 to 10.8 ft. The worst-case abutment scour also occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution.
It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and Davis, 1995, p. 46). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.
Additional publication details
- Publication type:
- Publication Subtype:
- USGS Numbered Series
- Level II scour analysis for Bridge 52 (CHESTH00100052) on Town Highway 10, crossing the South branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont
- Series title:
- Open-File Report
- Series number:
- Year Published:
- U.S. Geological Survey
- Publisher location:
- Pembroke, NH
- iv, 51 p.
- United States