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Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

Scientific Investigations Report 2015-5144

Prepared in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department
By:
DOI:10.3133/sir20155144

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Abstract

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department, has historically collected water-quality samples using the purge and pump method (hereafter referred to as pump method) to identify potential contamination in groundwater supply wells within the Independence well field. If grab sample results are comparable to the pump method, grab samplers may reduce time, labor, and overall cost. This study was designed to compare constituent concentrations between samples collected within the Independence well field using the pump method and the grab method.

Relative percent differences between environmental grab and duplicate grab samples were greater than 10 percent for 80 percent of the constituents. Duplicate grab samples were collected by tethering two grab samplers together, because the amount of water collected by each grab sampler is close to the amount necessary for analysis. The screened interval lengths of monitoring wells within the Independence well field is not conducive to collecting multiple grab samples by tethering samplers. The inability to collect required duplicate quality assurance samples may limit the use of grab samplers.

Concentrations between pump and grab samples were similar for analyzed nutrient species, the variability between methods was less than the variability between historical duplicate samples, and there were no significant differences determined. Major ion relative percent differences were less than 10 percent and root mean square error differences between methods and between historical duplicate samples were less than 1 milligram per liter with the exception of sulfate. Statistically significant differences were determined between pump and grab samples for sodium and fluoride. There is a strong association between major ion pump and grab samples based on bivariate plots and simple linear regressions. Variability between pump and grab samples of analyzed nutrients and major ions may have minimal effect on the ability to monitor temporal changes and potential groundwater contamination threats.

Relative percent differences between methods were greater than 10 percent for most analyzed trace elements. Barium, cobalt, manganese, and boron had concentrations that were significantly different between sampling methods. Barium, molybdenum, boron, and uranium method concentrations indicate a close association between pump and grab samples based on bivariate plots and simple linear regressions. Grab sample concentrations were generally larger than pump concentrations for these elements and may be because of using a larger pore sized filter for grab samples. Analysis of zinc blank samples suggests zinc contamination in filtered grab samples. Variations of analyzed trace elements between pump and grab samples could reduce the ability to monitor temporal changes and potential groundwater contamination threats. The degree of precision necessary for monitoring potential groundwater threats and application objectives need to be considered when determining acceptable variation amounts.

Suggested Citation

Krempa, H.M., 2015, Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the City of Independence, Missouri, 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations report 2015–5144, 19 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20155144.

ISSN: 2328-0328 (online)

Study Area

Table of Contents

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results of Concentration Comparison between Pump and Grab Samples
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • References Cited

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013
Series title:
Scientific Investigations Report
Series number:
2015-5144
DOI:
10.3133/sir20155144
Year Published:
2015
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location:
Reston, VA
Contributing office(s):
Missouri Water Science Center
Description:
v, 19 p.
Country:
United States
State:
Missouri
City:
Independence
Online Only (Y/N):
Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N):
N