Ground-water samples were collected from wells in the outcrops of the Trinity, Carrizo-Wilcox, and Gulf Coast aquifers during February-August 1994 to determine the quality of ground water in the three major aquifers in the Trinity River Basin study unit, Texas. These samples were collected and analyzed for selected properties, nutrients, major inorganic constituents, trace elements, pesticides, dissolved organic carbon, total phenols, methylene blue active substances, and volatile organic compounds as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Quality-control practices included the collection and analysis of blank, duplicate, and spiked samples.
Samples were collected from 12 shallow wells (150 feet or less) and from 12 deep wells (greater than 150 feet) in the Trinity aquifer, 11 shallow wells and 12 deep wells in the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer, and 14 shallow wells and 10 deep wells in the Gulf Coast aquifer. The three aquifers had similar water chemistries-calcium was the dominant cation and bicarbonate the dominant anion. Statistical tests relating well depths to concentrations of nutrients and major inorganic constituents indicated correlations between well depth and concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, bicarbonate, sodium, and dissolved solids in the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer and between well depth and concentrations of sulfate in the Gulf Coast aquifer. The tests indicated no significant correlations for the Trinity aquifer.
Concentrations of dissolved solids were larger than the secondary maximum contaminant level of 500 milligrams per liter established for drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 12 wells in the Trinity aquifer, 4 wells in the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer, and 6 wells in the Gulf Coast aquifer. Iron concentrations were larger than the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 micrograms per liter in at least 3 samples from each aquifer, and manganese concentrations were larger than the secondary maximum contaminant level of 50 micrograms per liter in at least 2 samples from each aquifer. The pesticides atrazine, deethylatrazine, and pp'-DDE were detected in at least one sample from each aquifer. Diazinon was detected in 11 Trinity aquifer samples and 4 Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer samples. Each aquifer had one detection of a volatile organic compound-benzene in the Trinity aquifer, trichlorofluoromethane in the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer, and trichloromethane in the Gulf Coast aquifer.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River basin, Texas : ground-water quality of the Trinity, Carrizo-Wilcox, and Gulf Coast aquifers, February-August 1994
Water-Resources Investigations Report
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ;Branch of Information Services [distributor],