Electric-analog design criteria are established from the differential equations of ground-water flow for analyzing pumping-test data. A convenient analog design was obtained by transforming the cylindrical equation of flow to a rectilinear form. The design criteria were applied in the construction of an electric analog, which was used for studying pumping-test data collected near Grand Island, Nebr.
Data analysis indicated (1) vertical flow components near pumping wells in unconfined aquifers may be much more significant in the control of water-table decline than radial flow components for as much as a day of pumping; (2) the specific yield during the first few minutes of pumping appears to be a very small fraction of that observed after pumping for more than 1 day; and (3) estimates of specific yield made from model studies seem much more sensitive to variations in assumed flow conditions than are estimates of permeability. Analysis of pumping-test data where vertical flow components are important requires that the degree of anisotropy be known. A procedure for computing anisotropy directly from drawdowns observed at five points was developed. Results obtained in the analog study emphasize the futility of calculating unconfined aquifer properties from pumping tests of short duration by means of equations based on the assumptions that vertical flow components are negligible and specific yield is constant.
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USGS Numbered Series
Electric analog of three-dimensional flow to wells and its application to unconfined aquifers