Assessment of surface-mining and reclamation activities generally requires extensive hydrologic data. Adequate streamflow data from instrumented gaging stations rarely are available, and estimates of surface- water discharge based on rainfall-runoff models, drainage area, and basin characteristics sometimes have proven unreliable. Channel-geometry measurements offer an alternative method of quickly and inexpensively estimating stream-flow characteristics for ungaged streams. The method uses the empirical development of equations to yield a discharge value from channel-geometry and channel-material data. The equations are developed by collecting data at numerous streamflow-gaging sites and statistically relating those data to selected discharge characteristics. Mean annual runoff and flood discharges with selected recurrence intervals can be estimated for perennial, intermittent, and ephemeral streams. The equations were developed from data collected in the western one-half of the conterminous United States. The effect of the channel-material and runoff characteristics are accounted for with the equations.